Bronchitis in children: acute, obstructive bronchitis, symptoms, treatment
Bronchitis in children most often occurs in the form of complications against the background of acute respiratory viral infection, influenza or a severe cold, hypothermia. The provoking factors of bronchitis are seasonal sharp temperature changes, especially periods of rain with high humidity, so this disease usually occurs in the fall or spring.
In form, all bronchitis in children are divided into: Acute, Prolonged and Recurrent.
For reasons of occurrence, depends on the pathogen of inflammation and is divided into:
- Viral - influenza, adenoviruses, parainfluenza
- Bacterial - can be acute and obstructive (the causative agent is streptococcus, staphylococcus, moraxelly, hemophilic rod, as well as mycoplasma and chlamydia)
- Allergic, obstructive, asthmatic - arises from irritating chemical or physical factors, such as household chemicals, house dust (read about the symptoms of allergy to dust), animal hair, plant pollen and others.
Bronchitis in a child up to a year - symptoms and treatment
Children who are breastfed and who do not have contact with sick children and adults should not have any respiratory illnesses. However, if the child was born prematurely, has congenital malformations of the respiratory organs and other diseases, as well as in the family there are preschool children attending kindergartens and often ill - the development of bronchitis in a child up to a year is possible by the following reasons:
- narrower than the adult, bronchi, a more dry and vulnerable mucosa of the respiratory tract
- existing congenital malformations
- after a viral or bacterial infection
- the presence of individual sensitivity to chemical and physical stimuli - an allergy to anything.
The most basic symptoms of developing bronchitis are a severe dry cough, paroxysmal, accompanied by difficulty breathing, shortness of breath. Gradually, the cough becomes moist, but mucus, sputum during bronchitis in a child up to a year of significant hinders breathing, normal lung function is disrupted, since the airway in infancy narrow. Bronchitis in children up to a year and even up to 3-4 years is most often the following:
- Acute bronchitis simple
- Obstructive bronchitis
On acute and obstructive bronchitis, we will dwell in more detail below. And now consider the most common in children under one year oldbronchiolitis.
Bronchitis in children under one year of age - bronchiolitis
This bronchitis affects both small bronchi and bronchioles, develops more often against the background of acute respiratory viral infections, influenza viruses with the subsequent reproduction of pneumococci (and so on. streptococci). In case of inhalation of icy air or sharp concentrations of various gases, bronchiolitis can develop as an independent disease. The danger of such bronchitis is a pronounced bronchoobstructive syndrome with the development of sometimes even acute respiratory failure:
- Characterized by dry cough attacks, pronounced dyspnea mixed or expiratory form with syndromes of swelling of the wings nose, with the involvement of ancillary muscles, the entrainment of the intercostal spaces of the chest, the pallor of the skin, cyanosis.
- The child has dry mouth, no tears when crying.
- The child eats less and drinks than usual, respectively, and his urination is more rare.
- Increased body temperature, but unlike pneumonia, it is less pronounced (see. whether it is necessary to bring down the temperature).
- Shortness of breath to 60-80 breaths per minute, while breathing is grunting, superficial.
- On both sides are heard diffuse wet ringing finely bubbling and crepitating rales.
- Symptoms of intoxication in bronchiolitis in children are not expressed.
- X-ray is determined by the sharp transparency of the lung tissue, the variegation of the pattern, the horizontal standing of the ribs, the absence of infiltrative changes in the lungs.
- If at first there was a simple bronchitis, then the attachment of bronchiolitis after a while is manifested by a sharp deterioration of the general condition of the child, cough becomes more painful and intense, with scanty phlegm.
- Children are usually very restless, moody, excited.
- The blood test can be slightly changed, a slight leukocytosis and an increase in ESR are possible.
- Usually, bronchiolitis in children up to one year has a prolonged course until 1 months.
- The causes of acute bronchiolitis in children are similar to the causes of development of obstructive bronchitis in children older than 2-4 years. The local immune system of the respiratory tract in children under 2 years is weak, protection against viruses is not enough, so they easily penetrate deep into bronchioles and small bronchi.
Treatment of bronchiolitis in children
At home, you can not cure bronchiolitis. When a bronchiolitis occurs, the infant is usually shown hospitalization, so that the child is under the supervision of doctors. In the hospital pediatricians, pulmonologists will establish an accurate diagnosis and prescribe appropriate treatment. What should my mom do before the ambulance arrives?
You can only alleviate the symptoms of colds - create optimally comfortable air in the room, turn on the humidifier, air purifier.
If there is no high temperature in the child, you can ease breathing with warming creams and ointments, spread them legs, calves. Only with this you need to be cautious if the child has not had any allergic manifestations before, then it helps a lot if a child allergic, warming ointments should be excluded.
To cough softer, you can do steam inhalation-above a boiling pot with a weak saline solution, hold the baby in her arms. Or sit him down at the table and cover with a towel over a cup of hot medical solution.
Try to force the baby to drink more to avoid dehydration, if the child refuses the breast or mixture, give the child just pure water.
In the hospital to relieve the signs of respiratory failure, the baby is given inhalations with bronchodilators and allowed to breathe oxygen. Also at the doctor's discretion, an antibiotic is selected - Sumamed, Macroben, Augmentin, Amoxiclav. It is possible to use various drugs with interferon. Necessarily prescribe antihistamines for the removal of edema at the site of inflammation and a possible allergic reaction to treatment. If symptoms of dehydration are observed, then the necessary rehydration therapy is performed.
Acute bronchitis in children - symptoms
Bronchitis in children is the most common form of respiratory tract disease. Acute bronchitis is an acute inflammation of the bronchial mucosa without symptoms of inflammation of the lung tissue. Simple bronchitis in children in 20% of a self-contained bacterial disease, 80% - either in a program of viruses (Coxsackie virus, adenovirus, influenza, parainfluenza) or as a bacterial complication after these viral infections.
Clinical symptoms of bronchitis in children are as follows:
First, the child has general weakness, malaise, headache, lack of appetite, then there is a dry cough or cough with sputum, the intensity of which is rapidly increasing, while listening to determine the dry diffuse or variously moist wheezing. Sometimes there may be a barking cough in a child whose treatment is slightly different.
In the first 2 days, the temperature rises to 38 ° C, but with a mild form, the temperature can be 37-3,.
After 6-7 days, the dry cough becomes wet, the sputum discharge facilitates the child's condition and is a good sign that the body is coping with the infection and the virus.
On average, the duration of acute bronchitis in children is 7-21 days, but the nature of the disease, the severity of the inflammatory process depend on the child's age, the strength of his immune system, the presence of concomitant chronic and systemic diseases. In case of inadequate or untimely treatment, acute bronchitis can lead to addition - bronchiolitis, pneumonia.
Sometimes after the flu, for some time, the child's condition improves, and then a sharp deterioration, a rise in temperature, a rise in the cough - this is due to the weakening of the immune system in the fight against the virus and the attachment of a bacterial infection, in this case it is shown antibiotic.
With mycoplasmal or adenoviral acute bronchitis in children, the symptoms of intoxication, such as high fever, headaches, chills, lack of appetite, can be about a week. Usually acute bronchitis is bilateral, however, with mycoplasma bronchitis it is most often one-sided, sometimes combined with conjunctivitis.
Acute bronchitis in children - treatment
Most often, the duration of acute bronchitis in children, whose treatment is correct and carried out on time, should not be more than 14 days, however, in infants, cough can persist for up to a month, as well as in older children with atypical-mycoplasmic bronchitis. If suddenly the bronchitis in the child is delayed, it is necessary to exclude a number of diseases:
- aspiration of food
- cystic fibrosis
- foreign body in bronchi
- tuberculosis infection
A pediatrician prescribes a full treatment package. In addition to implementing all the recommendations of the doctor, you should provide the child with special nutrition and quality care. It is desirable to create in the room the optimum humidity and purity, for this purpose it is convenient to use a humidifier and air purifier, often ventilate the room and conduct daily wet cleaning in the room in which child. And:
- Abundant drink
Ensure abundant reception of fluids in a warm form. To soften the cough, warm milk with butter or Borjomi mineral water helps, can be replaced with honey.
With fever, the temperature just above 38C should take antipyretics - paracetamol in syrup.
Antibiotics for bronchitis in children, if recommended by a doctor, should be given strictly by the hour. If taking antibacterial drugs is necessary 3 times a day, this does not mean that you must drink from breakfast, lunch and dinner, and this means that their reception should be 24/3 = 8, every 8 hours, if 1 time per day, then give it only at the same time, for example at 9 o'clock morning. 11 rules - how to take antibiotics correctly.
- Cough medicine
With a dry cough, the child can be given antitussive medicines as prescribed by the doctor, and when it becomes wet to go on expectorants. With a dry cough, the means can be combined (Sinekod). If the cough is wet, then expectorants are shown - Mucaltin, Bromhexin, Gedelix, Alpine syrup, Thermopsis herb infusion or its dry extract, Bronchicum, Evcabal, Prospan, breastfeeds.
Inhalation in bronchitis in children, the symptoms of which are very pronounced, are well assisted by inhalation with conventional baking soda, called over hot pots, inhalation of sodium bicarbonate using a nebulizer, inhaler.
- For babies
For small and infants who do not know how to clear themselves, doctors advise turning the child more often from one side to the other. In this case, sputum is shifted downward, irritating the bronchial wall, this leads to reflex cough.
For older children, cans, mustards, hot foot baths, they still help, and if the child has strong immunity, such procedures will help to avoid taking antibiotics. You can soar your baby's legs after 1 year, and also rub them with warming agents - turpentine ointments, Barsukor, Pulmax baby, etc., but only in the case when there is no high temperature, after rubbing, you should warm your feet and wrap child. However, in case of an allergic bronchitis in a child, neither the mustard nor the warming ointments can be used, since the composition of ointments and mustard can worsen the child's condition.
With bronchitis in children, the treatment is helped by compresses made from warm oil. Warm sunflower oil to 40 ° C and moisten them with gauze folded several times. This compress should be imposed only on the right side and back of the baby, from above put a plastic bag and a layer of cotton wool, bandage the child around several times. Dress warm clothes, do this procedure for the night, if there is no temperature in the child.
- Folk remedies
Old folk way - radish juice with honey, cabbage juice, turnip juice - any of these juices should be given 1 teaspoon 4 times a day. You can give and cranberry juice, mixing it with honey in a ratio of 3/1, a tablespoon 3 times a day.
The first week is well helped by chest massage, older children would be good at performing breathing exercises.
Physiotherapy with bronchitis
In children, these procedures are prescribed and conducted only at the physician's discretion, these are physiotherapy methods that contribute to faster recovery, because they have an anti-inflammatory effect, however, they can not be performed more often 2 once a year:
- Ultraviolet irradiation of the chest
- Mud, paraffin applications on the chest and between the shoulder blades
- Inductometry on the same areas
- Electrophoresis with calcium
- SOLLUX ON THE BREAST
- Aeronisation by the hydroionizer of the respiratory tract with solutions of chamomile, antibiotics.
Prevention of acute bronchitis in children:
Do not allow a prolonged runny nose in a child, timely treatment of any cold and infectious diseases will be the best preventative against penetration of the infection into the lower respiratory tract. ways.
Walking in the fresh air in the park, playing at the cottage, physical exercise in nature, tempering, daily intake of natural vitamins in fruits and vegetables, and not in tablets - the way to the health of your child.
Obstructive bronchitis in children - symptoms
In young children, usually up to 3-4 years of acute bronchitis may be accompanied by an obstructive syndrome - this is an acute obstructive bronchitis. In children, the symptoms of such bronchitis begin more often after viral infections or allergic manifestations on the stimulus.
The main symptoms of obstructive bronchitis:
- Harsh, audible long breath with whistling
- Coughing with attacks, before vomiting, debilitating
- During inhalation, the intercostal spaces are drawn in and chest is swollen with breathing
In obstructive allergic bronchitis, children do not have a temperature, it starts because of an allergic reaction to the strongest irritant for the child, and parents can often remember that they recently bought something for the child - a down pillow or a blanket made of camel or sheep wool, at home breathed in color from repair or went to visit, where there is cat.
In obstructive bronchitis in children, symptoms can begin on the 3rd-4th day of the flu or ARVI, and may also be caused by other bacteria, which is manifested in the appearance of expiratory dyspnea - an increase in the respiratory rate to 60 per minute, it is also noted difficulties when inhaled.
The child begins wheezing, noisy breathing, especially a prolonged wheezing exhale, which is heard by persons near the baby. The thorax is as if swollen, that is, the ribs are horizontally arranged. Cough is dry, obtrusive, bouts, arises suddenly, it does not bring relief and intensifies at night.
If this disease develops not after ARI, then the temperature in the early days is not increased.
Headache, weakness and nausea, are very rare.
When listening there are dry wheezing in the lungs.
X-ray revealed increased transparency, increased pulmonary pattern, in the absence of infiltrative changes in the lungs.
The analysis of blood as a viral infection - lymphocytosis, leukopenia. accelerated ESR, if allergic bronchitis in a child, then eosinophilia.
Almost always obstructive bronchitis is associated with a virus or mycoplasmal infection, relapses of obstructive bronchitis in children most often spontaneously stop by 4 years.
If the bronchioles and small bronchi are affected, then this is an acute bronchiolitis.
Obstructive bronchitis in children differs from asthma attacks, in that obstruction develops slowly, and with asthma the child abruptly begins to suffocate. Although the first attacks of bronchial asthma in children also begin during ARVI. If the obstruction occurs several times a year, it is a signal that the child is at risk for developing bronchial asthma in the future.
Obstructive bronchitis in a child can be due to passive smoking, it can be distinguished by a strong cough with a whistle in the morning, while the child's condition is quite satisfactory. Obstruction with allergies occurs when contact with an allergen and recently it becomes very frequent manifestation in children prone to allergies, such bronchitis are recurrent and threatened with development bronchial asthma.
Allergic and obstructive bronchitis in children - treatment
In obstructive bronchitis in children up to a year or 2 years, treatment should be performed in a hospital under the supervision of a pediatrician, in other cases at the discretion of the doctor and parents. Treatment is best done in a hospital if:
- In addition to obstruction in the child, the symptoms of intoxication are decreased appetite, fever, nausea, general weakness.
- Signs of respiratory failure. This is shortness of breath, when the frequency of breathing increases by 10% of the age norm, counting is better done at night, and not during games or crying. In children under 6 months, the respiration rate should not exceed 60 per minute, 6-12 months - 50 breaths, 1-5 years, 40 breaths. Acrocyanosis is a sign of respiratory failure, manifested by cyanotic nasolabial triangle, nails, that is, the body experiences oxygen deficiency.
- It is not uncommon for obstructive bronchitis in children to mask pneumonia, so if the doctor suspects pneumonia from hospitalization can not be denied.
Bronchiolithics extend the bronchi, so they are designed to relieve obstruction. To date, they are presented in various forms in the pharma industry:
- In the form of syrups (Salmeterol, Clenbuterol, Ascoril), which are convenient for young children, their disadvantage is the development of tremors and palpitations.
- In the form of solutions for inhalation (see. Berodual for inhalation) - this is the most convenient way for young children, breeding a medicinal solution with a physical solution, inhalation 2-3 times a day, after improvement, it is possible to use only at night. The multiplicity and dosage, as well as the course of treatment is determined only by the pediatrician.
- Inhalers-aerosols can be used only for older children (Berodual, Salbutamol).
- Such tableted forms of bronchodilators, like theophylline (Teopec, Euphyllin), are not indicated for the therapy of children with obstructive bronchitis, they have more pronounced side effects, are more toxic than local inhalation forms.
Can be used to reduce bronchial spasms. This is papaverine or Drotaverin, No-shpa. Their reception can be carried out with the help of an inhaler, orally in the form of tablets or intravenously in a hospital.
Means for coughing
To sputum better departed, various mucoregulatory drugs are used, they help dilute sputum and accelerate its excretion:
- These are preparations with active substance ambroksol (Lazolvan, Ambrobene). These drugs can not be taken for more than 10 days, it is most convenient to use them in the form of inhalations, as well as carbocisteine preparations (Fluiditek, Bronhobos, Mukosol).
- After the cough became wet, the seizures became less intense, the sputum liquefied, but it departs badly, the ambroxol should be changed to expectorants for cough for children, which should be given no more than 5-10 days, they include Gedelix, Bronchicum, Prospan, Bronhosan, Herbion (cf. Herbion from a dry and wet cough), Tussin, Bronchipret, breastfeeding, .
- Codeine-containing drugs for children should not be taken if the child has a seizure-like obsessive cough, the appointment of a doctor can be used Sinekod, Stopusin Fito, Libexin (with caution in childhood), Bronhicum, Broncholitin.
- Erespal - promotes both removal of obstruction, and reduction of sputum production, and also it possesses anti-inflammatory activity, is applied from the first days of the disease, reduces the risks of complications, contraindicated in children under 2 years.
To facilitate the departure of sputum, parents can themselves do their child massage the collar zone, chest, back. Especially strong massage should be done for the muscles of the back along the spine. Useful for obstructive bronchitis in children postural massage - that is, efflorescence of the baby's back in the morning, should to hang the child from the bed upside down (padding the pillow under his tummy) and tapping the palms folded in the boat 10-15 minutes. For older children, with a massage, ask the child to take a deep breath, and on an exhalation, tap. Useful and additional exercises such as inflating balloons, blowing out candles.
AntihistaminesAntihistamines are prescribed to children in the presence of allergic reactions. Such medicines for allergies like Eryus in syrup can be taken to children from 1 year, with the half a year it is possible to use Claritin and Zirtek, from 2 years in syrups and drops Cetrin, Zodak, Parlazin (cf. list of medicines for allergies). Such antihistamines of the 1st generation as Suprastin and Tavegil are used less often, only for drying with abundant liquid sputum.
Allergy or virus
If the obstruction is caused by an allergy or a virus - antibiotics can not be used, and even dangerous (see. antibiotics for colds and orgs). The appointment of antibiotics is possible only with the proven infectious origin of bronchitis in children.
When antibiotics are indicated
Treatment of bronchial obstruction with antibiotics is not indicated, only if the child has a fever over 4 days, or there was a second temperature jump to 39C after 4-5 days after the onset of the disease, accompanied by severe intoxication, severe coughing if with adequate treatment, the child suddenly becomes apathetic, sluggish, refuses to eat, has weakness, nausea, headaches and even vomiting. In such cases, the use of antibiotics is justified. They are prescribed only by a pediatrician on the basis of a clinical picture, the presence of purulent sputum (indicating bacterial bronchitis), inflammatory changes in the analysis of blood, as well as other signs of bacterial bronchitis or pneumonia (wheezing, x-ray signs).
Most doctors recommend that for ARVI and flu, take antiviral drugs, for babies candles Genferon, Viferon, and also in the form of drops Gripferon, Interferon, take Orvire syrups (remantadine), and after three years of age tableted forms such as Kagocel and Arbidol, Cytovir 3. But it is worth remembering that if in a family history (close relatives) there are any autoimmune diseases (Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic red lupus, diffuse toxic goiter, vitiligo, multiple sclerosis, pernicious anemia, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, myasthenia gravis, uveitis, Addison's disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis, scleroderma) it is impossible to take immunostimulants (Kagocel, Cytovir, Amiksin), it can cause a debut of an autoimmune disease in a child, possibly not now, and later (see. more antiviral drugs for orvi).
Hormonal therapyHormonal drugs, such as Pulcicort, are indicated only in severe or moderate leaks obstructive bronchitis (usually with the help of a nebulizer) they quickly stop obstruction and inflammation, their appoint only a doctor.
What not to do
In obstructive bronchitis in children - treatment by rubbing and spreading the body of the child with various heating oils (Dr. Mohm ointment, ointments with medicinal plants, essential oils), the use of mustard plasters is unacceptable, since they cause an even more allergic reaction and bronchospasm, especially in toddlers up to 3 years. Also categorically it is impossible to carry out inhalations with bronchitis with various medicinal herbs and essential oils. It is only possible to use such folk remedies for warming up - heat compresses with potatoes, salt, buckwheat.
PhysiotherapyPhysiotherapeutic procedures in the acute period are contraindicated, when the obstruction is already stopped, it is possible to perform UHF, electrophoresis or laser.
Hypoallergenic diet and plentiful drink
Any natural drinks - mineral water with milk, tea, broth of a dogrose, it is necessary to drink to the child as often as possible. The diet should be hypoallergenic, but at the same time maximally vitaminized, high in protein and fat content. Exclude from the diet of the child anything that can cause an allergic reaction:
- citrus, red and orange fruit
- purchased spices, sweets, milk cheeses, yoghurts, carbonated drinks, sausages and sausages - everything that contains dyes, flavors, preservatives and flavor enhancers
- honey and other beekeeping products
- fish, grown on fish farms, broiler chickens, as they are stuffed with hormones and antibiotics, which causes allergies.
When caring for a child, you should daily aerate, moisten the room where the child is. It's hot in the apartment should not be, it's better to have a cool, fresh, clean air. After the recovery of the child should be put on a dispensary record with an allergist.
All symptoms of bronchitis in children and signs of complications
The division of bronchitis into acute and chronic is based primarily on the duration of the disease. Symptoms of acute bronchitis in children usually last less than a month. Chronic bronchitis has a tendency to protracted flow with frequent exacerbations. In the period without exacerbations, the easily expressed symptoms of bronchitis in children are often preserved, and changes in the data of the instrumental examination also appear.
Acute bronchitis begins suddenly, a few hours or days after talking to a sick person. Increases the likelihood of its development of hypothermia, malnutrition and insolation (exposure to sunlight), immunodeficiency. The clinical picture consists of symptoms of intoxication and upper and lower respiratory tract damage.
The main symptoms of bronchitisThe main symptoms of acute bronchitis in children - cough and separation of sputum.
Cough - a protective reaction of the body, aimed at removing from the respiratory tract of foreign substances. At the beginning of the disease, coughing is usually dry. In some conditions (whooping cough), cough is unproductive, that is, it is not accompanied by the formation of sputum. Sometimes it becomes vexatious, painful, can lead to vomiting. Cough is often worse at night. It is accompanied by a feeling of sadness, perspiration, and stuffiness in the chest.
Quite quickly (in 1-3 days), light sputum appears in a small amount. It is viscous, rather viscous, coughing with difficulty. Sometimes in the sputum there are small lumps of mucus formed in the lumen of the bronchi in the form of stoppers. Mucous sputum is characteristic for viral bronchitis. As a result of the attachment of the bacterial flora, sputum becomes yellow or greenish, an unpleasant odor may appear. The appearance of purulent sputum should serve as an excuse for contacting a doctor. Sputum is a consequence of the activation of mucous glands in the wall of the bronchi, designed to remove ("wash") viral particles from the lumen of the bronchi.
The duration of cough for acute bronchitis is usually 5 to 10 days.
Symptoms of bronchitis in children often include upper respiratory tract infection. It is caused by the same viruses that caused inflammation of the bronchi. A child may be troubled by nasal congestion, runny nose, decreased sense of smell, difficulty in nasal breathing. On examination, hyperemia (reddening) of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and pharynx is visible.
Some viruses (for example, parainfluenza) cause simultaneous development of pharyngitis (inflammation of the pharynx) and laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx). This combination is manifested by the hoarseness of the voice or even by its soundlessness.
Bronchitis in a child may be accompanied by shortness of breath. Most often it occurs only with considerable physical exertion. In severe cases, shortness of breath appears and at rest. This is a dangerous symptom, it indicates the occurrence of respiratory insufficiency of the II degree and serves as the basis for hospitalization of the child.
Children can complain of pain in the chest, along the spine, and especially - in the pain in the upper abdomen. It is associated with fatigue of the respiratory muscles and diaphragm with prolonged coughing.
Intoxication is manifested by an increase in body temperature, often to subfebrile digits (not higher than 38 ° C). High fever is characteristic of some viral infections (eg, influenza). If, after the treatment has begun, the body temperature first decreases and then rises again after 2-3 days - most likely, this indicates the attachment of bacterial pathogens. Repeated temperature rises are the basis for contacting a doctor. Often, this requires treatment with antibiotics.
Other signs of intoxication in a child are headache, refusal to eat, malaise, lethargy, drowsiness during the day. The child is upset and crying.
Thus, several syndromes that are characteristic of bronchitis in a child are distinguished:
- respiratory insufficiency.
The severity of the course of this disease is determined by the severity of these syndromes.
Signs of bronchitis, revealed during examinationThe general condition usually suffers insignificantly, the increase in body temperature can be recorded. In severe cases, cyanosis (blueing) of the fingers, nasolabial triangle is noted. This is due to the lack of enrichment of the blood with oxygen in the lungs.
With concomitant viral damage of the upper respiratory tract, there is a visible hyperemia (reddening) of the sclera, which is separated from the nose.
The frequency of respiratory movements increases with fever or development of respiratory failure. In severe cases, breathing takes place in the areas of the chest, which serves as a sign of the intensive work of the respiratory musculature.
With percussion of the lungs their boundaries are unchanged, percussion sound is pulmonary. With the development of bronchiolitis, accompanied by signs of acute swelling of the lungs, a box percussion sound appears.
The main signs of the disease are recorded during auscultation. The doctor can hear on the background of hard breathing widespread dry wheezing, as well as buzzing and in some cases wet rales over the entire surface of the lungs. The number of wheezing and their character usually change after coughing, since they are caused by a congestion of sputum in the lumen of the bronchi. In more mild cases, severe breathing is noted with a small amount of dry wheezes.
With bronchial obstruction dry wheezing rales are heard primarily on exhalation.
Characteristic increase in the number of cardiac contractions (tachycardia) and muffled heart tones.
Laboratory and instrumental signs of bronchitis
Changes in blood tests are non-specific and are caused by the effect of pathogens. With viral infection, there is often an increase in the number of lymphocytes. For bacterial infection, an increase in the number of segmented neutrophils is more typical, in severe cases - a shift of the formula to the left, an increase in the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation.
When examining the function of external respiration in severe cases, there is a decrease in bronchial patency with a preserved vital capacity of the lungs. The test with salbutamol is more often positive.
When radiographing chest organs, a diffuse enhancement of the pulmonary pattern is revealed without focal changes.
Signs of bronchitis in certain diseases
With mycoplasma bronchitis there is a cough with light sputum, symptoms of pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, fever and pain in the muscles. The disease can last up to 6 weeks.
For bronchitis caused by klebsiella, a combination of signs of pharyngitis and laryngitis is especially characteristic.
Bronchitis caused by chlamydia often occurs in an erased form, manifested only by a prolonged cough with a small amount of sputum. Cough with this disease usually appears only at night.
Acute bronchitis in whooping cough is manifested by a paroxysmal dry cough. It can also occur in vaccinated individuals, but proceeds in mild form.
The severity of bronchitis
- A mild degree is characterized by a normal or slightly elevated body temperature, a mild cough with mucous sputum. The condition of the child does not suffer.
- The moderate severity of the disease is characterized by intoxication, an increase in body temperature to subfebrile digits, a fairly strong cough with sputum, dyspnoea with exercise.
- The severe course is characterized by a sharp onset, high fever, intense cough, often painful, with a low amount of sputum, dyspnea at rest, signs of oxygen starvation.
Signs of complications of bronchitisIn children under 5, bronchitis may be complicated by the development of bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Bronchiolitis is an inflammation of the smallest branches of the bronchial tree. When pneumonia affects the alveoli - the final sections of the respiratory tract.
The child has a painful cough, the amount of sputum decreases. Expressed dyspnoea at rest. There may be cyanosis (blueing) of the nasolabial triangle and limbs. The condition worsens, the body temperature rises to high figures. Such complications of acute bronchitis require treatment in a hospital.
Acute bronchitis can be complicated by the development of bronchial obstructive syndrome. This is due to the pronounced edema of the mucosa, which blocks the lumen of the respiratory tract. Bronchoobstruction is manifested by a paroxysmal cough, shortness of breath with a complicated elongated expiration. Quite often, at a distance from the patient dry rattles are heard. The child can take a forced position sitting, with the support of the hands. Bronchial obstruction requires immediate treatment.
Acute bronchitis can go into a relapsing, and then into a chronic form. Chronic bronchitis is characterized by repeated exacerbations for a minimum of 2 years. Most often this option occurs against the background of other lung diseases. It manifests itself as a cough with purulent or white sputum. Gradually, the child begins to lag behind in growth. It develops a barrel-like deformation of the chest.
Help, at the child, years signs of a bronchitis, prompt, who than treated?
I remember only augmentin. Take a pediatrician for x-ray or fluorography. on a picture it will be visible also to you will appoint or nominate treatment. You can not start.
The child will be helped by a water infusion of propolis. But first to the doctor !!!
I immediately begin to soar my legs. I pour hot water into the basin, I put mustard there and put the children's legs in this basin. so that the water does not cool off I cover with a blanket and I pour hot vidicles. sit 20 minutes, but you can and more. Then hot feet smear with warming ointment type bomb-benge and wear woolen socks. soar the legs for the night therefore we sleep in socks. from cough I make grass. I give the root of licorice in syrup. if the day after 2-3 improvement does not occur, then go to the doctor.
* Lana *
Bronchitis can develop into asthma, so it is difficult to advise, it is more reliable to go to a doctor. We took ASORIL syrup, a very good remedy, but strong, if the bronchitis is not too acute, it is better to drink something lighter, for example, Bromgexin and Biseptol (together).
What are the signs? If the temperature, then you must call the doctor, so he prescribed antibiotics + from a cough. If something serious - self-medication of children, it seems to me, it is better not to be engaged.
antibiotic augmentin. In bronchitis, it is desirable that the child clears throat. Good help is a black radish with honey. (cut the core, put the honey there and let it stand for 2 hours. juice to give 3 times a day for 0.5-1 teaspoon)
It is necessary to drink antibiotics, but it is better, of course, on the advice of a doctor. And when they accept the necessarily pastel regime, and then everything will be useless.
antibiotics treat bronchitis, we specifically have this chemomycin (he is one of the most sparing), sometimes sumamed, a suspension, given once a day, three days. Plus expectorant, inhalation, sprays like "Hexoral."
It is necessary to call a district doctor and most importantly not to engage in self-medication.
Biseptol is NOT available. You put a liver to him!!! This sulphopreparation is only for adults and it is not desirable