External otitis in children and adults: symptoms and treatmentAccording to official statistics, otitis externa, the symptoms and treatment of which will be discussed in this article, are carried by 5 people per 1000 people worldwide every year. In 3-5% of people, this disease is observed in chronic form.
It was noted that, despite the prevalence among residents of all countries, this disease is more likely to be found in places with a warm and humid climate. In addition, the otitis of the external auditory canal is predisposed to the nationalities, in which this passage is narrow.
At its core, the described pathology is nothing more than an inflammatory disease that develops in the region external parts of the ear, which are known to include the auricle, external ear canal and drum membrane.
This ailment is caused mainly by representatives of the bacterial genus, but there are other causes of the disease that will be described below.
External otitis, a photo of which can be seen below, is equally common in both men and women:
From the viewpoint of occupational morbidity, the development of the disease is characteristic primarily of people engaged in diving and / or swimming, as well as for other people who often get water in their ear.
The maximum incidence rate falls on the age from 7 to 12 years. Physicians associate this with the immaturity of the defense mechanisms and, of course, with the peculiarities of the anatomy of the child's ear. Outer otitis in a child is an actual pediatric problem.
Limited, diffuse, allergic and fungal otitis externa
In medicine, it is common to distinguish two main types of the described disease - it is limited external otitis and diffuse:
- A limited variant of the disease manifests itself as an inflammatory process of the hair follicle in the ear canal, or in the form of a furuncle. At the same time, this boil will not be visible from the outside. The patient can only guess about his presence. The basis of this conjecture is always pain, which is aggravated by chewing or touching the ear. After a couple of days, the abscess reaches its peak of maturity and bursts because of what the pain goes away.
- For the diagnosis of diffuse external otitis furuncle is not typical. The inflammatory process is more common and affects the entire auditory canal.
This form of the disease is further subdivided into three varieties, the names of which reflect the main culprit of their development.This includes: bacterial form of the disease, caused mainly by group A streptococci, allergic variant a disease based on an allergy, and fungal otitis externa, the causative factor of which is fungi.
Acute and chronic otitis media of the external ear
According to the clinical course, the described disease can be acute or chronic:
- Chronic external otitis develops, as a rule, as a result of the absence or insufficiency of therapy of the acute form of the disease. Also, quite often the reason is the regular cleaning of the ears with cotton buds. This leads to the removal of the protective layer of sulfur and as a consequence to traumas of the ear canal. The result of such processes is the coarsening of the stratum corneum of the epidermis, the appearance of itching in the ears and the reduction of resistance to inflammation. The skin of the auditory canal thickens and overlaps its lumen.
- It is believed that if the acute otitis of the external ear recurred more than 4 times during a year or its duration is more than 4 weeks, then this is already a chronic form of the disease.
Otitis media of the middle ear and other causes of otitis media of the external auditory canal
In most cases, the causes of external otitis causes an infectious nature. First of all, they are bacteria and, in particular, staphylococcus, as well as fungi.
Predisposing to the development of this disease factors can be attributed to the constant moisture of the skin of the auditory canal.This condition becomes the reason that the skin protective barrier is broken:normal for the skin of the ear canal is characterized by an acid reaction, with the help of which a reliable protection from infection, and under the influence of water, this acidity rapidly decreases and opens the way microbes.
Of great importance is also the presence of small wounds, for example, scratches or cuts of the skin of the ear canal:they can easily be obtained by trying to clear the ear of sulfur, especially if it uses matches, hairpins or toothpicks and other unintended objects.
External otitis media also has its own risk factors:
- For example, the development of this ailment in children is facilitated by a skin pathology such as eczema, which is the cause of peeling and the appearance of erosions in the ear. A significant role in the formation of otitis belongs to the so-called sulfur plugs. This increases the risk of traumatizing the auditory meatus when trying to clean it, because many patients believe that they themselves can get rid of the plug.
- Another risk factor that can eventually cause external otitis media is the otitis media of the chronic middle ear. In this case, the introduction of infection is facilitated by the constant presence of a purulent discharge in the auditory canal.
- The risk of skin lesions in the area of the auditory canal exists also in diseases, accompanied by a decrease in immunity (say, diabetes), as well as with the narrowness of the auditory tube.
Signs of external ear otitis
The symptoms that arise when the disease is called otitis externa are, as a rule, observed only on one side. the disease is characterized by the defeat of one ear. Patients are concerned about persistent pain in the hearing organ itself or in its area. In this case, the pain is intensified by the movement of the tragus or the auricle as a whole.
There is a feeling of stuffiness of the ear and a clear decrease in its function:patients note that they are hearing impaired. The external auditory canal swells, the lymph nodes located in the ear area increase.
In the case of eczema or fungal damage, the above mentioned signs of external otitis may well be caused by an earache.
Furuncle with limited external otitisWith a limited version of external otitis, the first sign appearing in the patient is a throbbing pain, the intensity of which increases during conversation and / or chewing. If you push on the tragus or pull the ear, the soreness also increases.
Patients diagnosed with limited otitis externa ear symptoms usually do not include hearing impairment. It decreases only when the lumen of the auditory canal completely overlaps.
As mentioned above, the main sign of this form of the disease is furuncle. When examining the auditory canal on one of its walls you can notice flushing and swelling of the skin. After some time in the center of this area is formed softening, the boil is opened, which is accompanied by the release of pus.
Symptoms of acute diffuse otitis media
If there is diffuse acute external otitis, the symptoms developing in the patient differ somewhat from the manifestations with limited otitis. Pain in the ear is insignificant, it may be replaced by an itch, which sometimes is quite significant. Body temperature remains at normal level or slightly increases. Hearing is usually preserved and reduced only with significant swelling of the skin with the closure of the entire lumen of the auditory canal.
During examination of the ear canal, swelling, redness and thickening of the skin are revealed. When the process spreads to the tympanic membrane, a small amount of transparent secretions appears from the ear, the hearing decreases, the eardrum becomes hyperemic.
Diffuse external purulent otitis is characterized by the release of pus from the ear. The temperature is increased and the general condition of the patient suffers.
Complications of external ear otitisAcute external otitis usually does not often lead to the development of any complications, but there is a small risk in this regard.
The result of this disease can become abscesses, and in simple words filled with pus and quite painful abscesses. They appear in those places where the ear infection with inflammation began. As a rule, such abscesses disappear on their own. Although in some cases, to speed up recovery, the doctor has to drain abscesses.
Complications of external otitis in the form of a narrowing of the external auditory canal are usually formed in patients with a chronic form of ear damage. As a result, such patients may worsen hearing or even complete deafness, but this is rare. The described constriction is easily treated with special drops. If they are appointed on time, then the hearing will later be all right.
External otitis in adults and children can lead to inflammatory processes, and sometimes to perforation of the tympanic membrane. This is due to the fact that in some cases, as a result of inflammation of the external ear, the fluid in the inner ear begins to accumulate. This fluid presses on the membrane and eventually breaks it, which is accompanied by loss of hearing, pain, ringing and viscous secretions from the ears.
In most cases, the membranes heal in a couple of months without any treatment. If this does not happen, then surgical intervention is prescribed.
How to treat external otitis mediaWhen treating patients with a diagnosis of external otitis treatment, as a rule, includes the use of anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents. The most popular among such medicines were acquired by Garazon and Sofrex, combining both of these effects. However, it is not recommended to use them without prescribing a doctor, which should be remembered especially if the described disease affects the child. After all, improper selection of medicines or failure to adhere to adequate measures for their use usually leads to undesirable consequences in the form of certain complications and / or side effects of the action medicines.
With the diagnosis of otitis externa, treatment with antibacterial drugs is aimed at eliminating the infectious focus. In this case, due to the fact that in the composition of virtually all drugs used in addition to the main active substance There are also anti-inflammatory, as well as analgesic components, the patient gradually eliminated and painful Feel. Such therapy of the described disease is most effective.
Complex treatment of acute external otitis media
In addition to the course of antibiotics, prescribed strictly by the recommendation of the attending physician, in patients with acute diagnosis External otitis treatment includes the use of warming compresses, and the elimination of nasal congestion, and an increase immunity.
There was a time when with this disease the treatment with boric alcohol was widely used. This substance was moistened with turundas, which were then placed in the ear. However, these days this procedure is recognized as a gross error, because alcohol causes severe irritation and as a result intensifies the inflammatory reaction.
It must be remembered that the treatment of the described disease should be comprehensive.
Drops with external otitis, no matter how qualitative they were, can not eliminate inflammation. And if you only use them, then this will not be enough for a complete cure.
We must not forget about the hygienic procedures that must be performed according to a certain scheme, because incorrect use of them can lead to plug-in. In addition, a too moist environment can contribute to the development of microorganisms in the ear, so it is worth preserving this body from washing.
Treatment of a limited otitis externa ear with drops or ointmentWhen deciding how to treat external otitis of limited form, the first thing the doctor prescribes is usually antibacterial ointment or drops.
The first kind of medicinal forms is Triderm or Celestoderm:These drugs lubricate turunda and inject into the ear.
Of the most popular drops:Neomycin and Ofloxacin.
A careful treatment of the affected area should be performed before using these medications. This is usually done with silver nitrate.
Analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to eliminate pain.
Sometimes it is carried out as a treatment for external otitis in adults, an incision is made of the furuncle, followed by treatment with antiseptics and antibiotics.
To restore the immune system that is broken in the disease, vitamin therapy, autohemotherapy and immunocorrective therapy are prescribed.
Treatment of diffuse otitis in a childOtitis of the outer ear of the diffuse type is also treated mainly by antibacterial drugs with the addition of multivitamins and immunocorrection.
In the ear injecting turuns with Burov ointment or hormonal ointments, instill antibacterial drops. In the presence of purulent discharge, the affected area is washed with a solution of antibiotics.
When the diagnosis of otitis externa in a child, the treatment must necessarily be controlled by the treating doctor. Independent attempts to cure a baby can lead to serious consequences.
Therapy,as a rule, is limited to conservative methods and is based on the same principles as treatment of the described ailment in adults: the use of drops and ointments based on antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and analgesic medicines.
In the case of occlusion of the auditory canal, the doctor performs manipulations aimed at clearing it of serous contents. After that, he carefully examines the eardrum. And after that, he makes the appointment of the necessary medicines.
How to treat external otitis depending on the causes of its appearanceThe outer ear is the outer part of the hearing aid. Its border from the middle ear lies through the tympanic membrane.
Otitis of the outer ear in common speech is called "swimmer's disease".
This name has arisen because of this disease among swimmers, as a group of high-risk.
In the summer season, the disease of the external ear manifests itself most often.
How to treat external otitis depends on the nature of its occurrence. External otitis media is divided into an infectious and non-infectious disease.
Infectious otitis media:
- inflammation of the cartilage of the ear (perichondritis);
- herpes in the auricle;
Non-infectious otitis media:
- otomycosis - fungal infection;
- otalgia - nerve damage;
- atresia - a birth defect;
- exostosis - bone growth.
Before deciding how to treat external otitis, it is necessary to find out the cause that led to the disease. Then, with the help of treatment, to eliminate this cause or its consequences, to take preventive measures to avoid recurrence of the disease.
Often, the penetration of the causative agent of the external ear disease occurs for the following reasons:
- damage (injury);
- presence of foreign body;
- hit of an aggressive chemical;
- improper ear hygiene;
- independent extraction of sulfuric cork;
- constant moistening of the ear of water falling into it;
- combing the ear with itching dermatosis and diabetes mellitus;
- decreased immunity;
- chronic diseases: tonsillitis, pyelonephritis, syphilis, tuberculosis, etc .;
- severe exhaustion (chronic fatigue);
The cause of external otitis may be a complication of otitis media of the middle ear.
External otitis media can be caused by:
- Staphylococcus aureus;
- a hemophilic rod;
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa;
- mora sella;
- fungus candida.
Depending on the etiology of the disease of the external ear, treatment is prescribed accordingly.
The methods of exposure can be as follows:
- antifungal agents;
- anti-inflammatory drugs;
- folk remedies.
The use of antibiotics and ear drops with external otitis. Treatment with folk remediesIn case of external ear disease, an outpatient examination is performed.
After diagnosing the disease, it is determined how to treat external otitis media.
A drug is prescribed for otitis in the form of antibiotics and ear drops.
Folk remedies are offered as an auxiliary treatment. Often in the treatment of external otitis resort to folk remedies. For example, boric acid is buried in the ear. The use of this tool requires caution, so be sure to consult with your doctor, whether it is appropriate for you to use this tool.
External otitis media. Treatment with antibiotics.
Treatment of external otitis with antibiotics is prescribed in case the disease has become acute or chronic form, in the place where it is localized there is a purulent content, when the ear pain does not pass and the severity decreases hearing.
For the treatment of external otitis, the following antibiotics are used:
- Ampicillin. For adults gr. per day for 2-6 receptions. Children - at the rate of 100 mg / kg.
- Oxacillin. For adults - 2, 4 gr. per day for 4 hours. Up to 6 years - based on age and weight.
- Amoxicillin. For adults gr. per day for 3 hours. Children 25 5 gr.
- Cefazolin. For adults 5-1 gr. in 6-8 hours. For children - 20-50 mg.
- Cephalexin. For adults 5 gr. per day for 4 hours.
- Agumentin. For adults 5-2 gr. per day for 2-4 admission.
In addition to taking antibiotics in the form of tablets, injections and ear drops with antibiotics can be prescribed. What are the best antibiotics to take and in what dose, the doctor should decide.
Ear drops with external otitis.
Ear drops are prescribed depending on the nature of the disease and can be of the following types:
- Corticosteroids- rapid removal of inflammation.
- With antibioticsTreatment of bacterial infection.
- Antifungal- elimination of fungal infection.
- With boric acid- Destruction of pathogenic bacteria.
The most common ear drops with external otitis:
- Otypax: 3-4 drops / 2-3 procedures per day - eliminates inflammation, itching and pain, is a good antiseptic.
- Otofa: 3-5 drops / 3 procedures per day (treatment no more than three days) - destroys bacteria such as staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus.
- Anauran: 3-5 drops / 3 procedures per day - antiseptic, relieves inflammation, fights against microbes.
- Otinum: 3-4 drops / 4 procedures per day - has anti-inflammatory effect, relieves pain.
- Sofradex: 2-3 drops / 4 procedures per day - has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effect.
Burying in the ear is done after a preliminary cleansing of the auricle with the help of cotton buds. The procedure is better to hold lying on its side. After instillation - lie down a bit, giving the drug to penetrate into the inside of the ear.
External otitis media. Treatment with folk remedies.
Treatment is carried out in the form of instillation, putting tampons in the ear with medicine, applying warming compresses. For the treatment of external otitis folk remedies are used infusions of herbs, juice of medicinal plants, oils.
Than to treat an external otitis in the form of instillation:
- onion juice;
- tincture of mint leaves;
- tincture of calendula;
- tincture of cranberry leaves;
- tincture of juniper berries;
- decoction of laurel leaves;
- a mixture of juice of garlic and olive oil;
- horseradish juice.
It is worth noting
If the focus of the disease is outside, then instead of the instillation procedure, you can put a swab dipped in the medication in the ear concha.
Heating compresses are made primarily by heating alcohol or vodka to 40 degrees.
Compress is done as follows:
- attach gauze moistened with alcohol to your ear;
- pass the ear into the previously cut in the middle;
- apply polyethylene and cotton wool layer;
- fix the compress with a bandage.
Only the doctor will tell you how to treat external otitis. Treatment with folk remedies is ancillary, but, like the main one, requires expert advice..
Symptoms and treatment of otitis in adults
- Ear anatomy
- Causes of otitis media
- Pathogens of the disease
- The clinical picture is the symptoms of otitis
- General principles of diagnosis
- Treatment of external otitis media
- Treatment of otitis media and labyrinthitis in adults
- Prevention of otitis
Otitis is an ear inflammation, a general term for any infectious processes in the hearing organ. Depending on the affected area of the ear, the outer, middle and inner otitis (labyrinthitis) are secreted. Otitis occurs frequently. Ten per cent of the world's population suffered from external otitis during their lifetime.
Annually in the world 709 million new cases of acute otitis media are registered. More than half of these episodes occur in children under 5 years of age, but adults also suffer from inflammation of the middle ear. Labyrinthitis, as a rule, is a complication of otitis media and is relatively rare.
For a better understanding of the subject, it is necessary to briefly recall the anatomy of the organ of hearing.
The components of the outer ear are the auricle and auditory canal. The role of the external ear is to trap the sound wave and carry it to the eardrum.
The middle ear is the tympanic membrane, the drum cavity containing the chain of auditory ossicles, and the auditory tube.
In the tympanic cavity, there is an increase in the sound vibrations, after which the sound wave follows the inner ear. The function of the auditory tube connecting the nasopharynx and the middle ear is the ventilation of the tympanum.
The inner ear contains the so-called "cochlea" - a complex sensory organ in which sound vibrations are converted into an electrical signal. An electrical impulse follows the auditory nerve into the brain, carrying coded information about the sound.
External otitis media
Otitis externa is an inflammation of the auditory canal. It can be diffuse, and can proceed in the form of a furuncle. When diffuse external otitis affects the skin of the entire ear canal. Furuncle is a limited inflammation of the skin of the external ear.
Average otitis media
With an average otitis inflammation occurs in the tympanum. There are many forms and variants of the course of this disease. It can be catarrhal and purulent, perforative and non-perforative, acute and chronic. When otitis can develop complications.
The most common complications of otitis media include mastoiditis (inflammation of the occipital bone of the temporal bone), meningitis (inflammation of the brain membranes), abscess (abscess) of the brain, labyrinthitis.
Internal otitis almost never is an independent disease. Almost always it is a complication of the inflammation of the middle ear. Unlike other types of otitis, its main symptom is not pain, but hearing loss and dizziness.
Causes of otitis media
- After getting contaminated water - most often the external otitis occurs after the ingestion of water containing the causative agent of the disease into the ear. That is why the second name of this disease is "swimmer's ear".
- Injury of the skin of the external auditory canal - in addition to the presence of infection in the water, there must also be local conditions predisposing to the development of inflammation: microcracks of the skin, etc. Otherwise, each of our contact with unboiled water would result in the development of inflammation in ear.
- Complication of SARS, sinusitis - in this case, the causative agent of middle otitis penetrates into the tympanum completely from the other side, the so-called rhinotubar path, that is, through the auditory tube. Usually, the infection gets into the ear from the nose, when a person is sick with ARVI, runny nose or sinusitis. In case of a serious inflammation of the middle ear, the infection can spread to the inner ear.
- With infectious diseases, kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypothermia against a background of reduced immunity, the risk of inflammation in the middle ear increases. Bruising through 2 nostrils (wrong), coughing and sneezing increase the pressure in the nasopharynx, which leads to the ingress of infected mucus into the middle ear cavity.
- Mechanical removal of earwax - it is a protective barrier against infections.
- High air temperature and high humidity.
- Contact with foreign objects in the ear.
- Use of hearing aids.
- Such diseases as seborrheic dermatitis on the face, eczema, psoriasis.
- The causes of development of acute otitis media are also genetic location, immunodeficiency states, HIV infection.
Pathogens of the disease
Pathogens of external otitis can be bacteria or fungi. Especially often found in the ear canal are microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. For the fungi of the genus Candida and Aspergillus, the skin of the ear canal is one of the favorite places in the body: it's dark, and after bathing it's still wet.
The causative agents of otitis media, and therefore internal, can be viruses and bacteria. Fungal infection of the middle ear is also found, but much less often than the external one. The most common bacterial pathogens of otitis media are pneumococcus, hemophilic rod, moraxella.
The clinical picture is the symptoms of otitis
- Pain is the main symptom of otitis media. The intensity of pain can be different:
- from barely perceptible to unbearable
- character - pulsing, shooting
It is very difficult, it is often impossible to independently distinguish painful sensations with external otitis from painful sensations with inflammation of the middle ear. The only clue can be the fact that with external otitis pain should be felt when touching the skin at the entrance to the ear canal.
- Hearing loss is a fickle symptom. It can be present with both external otitis media, and with an average, may be absent in both these forms of ear inflammation.
- Increase in temperature - most often there is an increase in body temperature, however, this is also an optional feature.
- Discharge from the ear with external otitis occur almost always. After all, nothing prevents the inflammatory fluid from escaping outward.
With the average otitis, if the perforation (hole) is not formed in the tympanic membrane, there is no secretion of their ear. The suppuration from the ear canal begins after the appearance of a communication between the middle ear and the auditory meatus.
I emphasize that perforation can not be formed even with purulent otitis. Patients suffering from otitis media often ask where pus will go if it does not break out. It's very simple - he will go out through the auditory tube.
- Ear noise (see Fig. causes of noise in the ears), ear congestion is possible with any form of the disease.
- When the inflammation of the inner ear develops, dizziness (causes) may appear.
Acute otitis media occurs in 3 stages:
Acute catarrhal otitis - the patient experiences severe pain, worse by night, with coughing, sneezing, she can give in temple, teeth, be stabbing, pulsating, drilling, hearing loss, appetite, weakness and high fever 39C.
Acute purulent otitis - there is accumulation of pus in the middle ear cavity, followed by perforation and suppuration, which may be on day 2-3 of the disease. In this period, the temperature drops, the pain decreases, the doctor can make a small puncture (paracentesis), if there is no independent rupture of the tympanic membrane.
Restorative stage - suppuration stops, the defect of the tympanic membrane closes (fusion of the edges), the hearing is restored within 2-3 weeks.
General principles of diagnosis
In most cases, the diagnosis of acute otitis media does not cause difficulties. High-tech methods of research are needed infrequently, the ear is well visible to the eye. The doctor examines the tympanic membrane with a head reflector (a mirror with a hole in the middle) through the ear funnel or a special optical device - the otoscope.
An interesting device for the diagnosis of otitis was developed by the famous corporation Apple. It is an oscopic attachment for the camera phone. It is assumed that with the help of this gadget, parents will be able to photograph the baby's eardrum (or their own) and send photos for consultation to their doctor.
Diagnosis of external otitis media
Examining the ear of a patient suffering from external otitis, the doctor sees redness of the skin, narrowing of the auditory canal and the presence of liquid secretions in its lumen. The degree of narrowing of the ear canal is such that the tympanic membrane is not visible at all. When inflammation of the external ear of other examinations except for the inspection is usually not necessary.
Diagnosis of otitis media and labyrinthitis
In acute inflammation of the middle ear, the main way to establish a diagnosis is also an examination. The main signs that allow diagnosing "acute otitis media" are reddening of the tympanic membrane, limitation of its mobility, and the presence of perforation.
- How is the mobility of the tympanic membrane checked?
People are asked to inflate their cheeks without opening their mouths, that is, "blowing their ears". This reception is called the maneuver of Valsalva, named after the Italian anatomist, who lived at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. It is widely used by divers and divers to equalize the pressure in the drum cavity in deep water descent.
When a jet of air enters the middle ear cavity, the eardrum moves slightly and this is noticeable with the eye. If the drum cavity is filled with inflammatory fluid, no air will enter it and the eardrum will not move. After the appearance of suppuration from the ear, the doctor can observe the presence of perforation in the tympanic membrane.
Sometimes to determine the nature of the disease may need audiometry (hearing on the apparatus) or tympanometry (measurement of pressure inside the ear). However, these methods of hearing tests are more often used in chronic otitis media.
The diagnosis of the labyrinthitis is usually made when the acuteness of the middle otitis suddenly sharply decreases acuteness of the hearing and dizziness appears. Audiometry in this situation is mandatory. You also need an examination of a neurologist and an oculist.
- CT and X-ray
The need for X-ray studies occurs when there is a suspicion of complications of the disease - mastoiditis or intracranial infection. Fortunately, such cases are rare. In a situation where complications are suspected, a computer tomography of the temporal bones and brain is usually performed.
- Bacterial sowing
Do I need a smear to determine the bacterial flora? A unequivocal answer to this question is not easy. The problem is that, due to the peculiarities of bacterial culture, the response of this examination will be received 6-7 days after the removal of the smear, that is, by the time when the otitis is almost gone. Moreover, with a medium otitis without a perforation, a smear is useless, since the microbes are behind the tympanic membrane.
And yet a smear is better to do. In the event that the application of the first-line drug does not bring recovery, after receiving the results of a bacterial study, treatment can be adjusted.
Treatment of external otitis media
The main treatment for external otitis media in adults is ear drops. If a person does not have immunodeficiency (HIV infection, diabetes mellitus), antibiotics in tablets are usually not needed.
Ear drops can contain only an antibacterial drug or be combined - have an antibiotic and an anti-inflammatory substance. The course of treatment takes 5-7 days. Most often for the therapy of external otitis media apply:
- Ciprofarm (Ukraine, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride)
- Normax (100-140 rubles, norfloxacin)
- Otofa (170-220 rubles, rifamycin)
Corticosteroids + antibiotics:
- Sophradex (170-220 rub., Dexamethasone, Framicetin, gramicidin)
- Candybiotic (210-280 rub., Beclomethasone, lidocaine, clotrimazole, Chloramphenicol)
- Miramistin (250-280 rubles, with a nebulizer)
The last two drugs also have antifungal properties. If the external otitis has a fungal origin, antifungal ointments are actively used: clotrimazole (Candide), natamycin (Pimafucin, Pimafucort).
In addition to ear drops, the doctor can recommend an ointment with the active substance Mupirocin (Bactroban 500-600 rub, Supirocin 300 rubles) for the treatment of external otitis media. It is important that the drug does not have a negative effect on the normal skin microflora, and there are data on the activity of mupirocin against fungi.
Treatment of otitis media and labyrinthitis in adults
The main treatment for middle otitis media is an antibiotic. However, the treatment of otitis antibiotics in adults is another controversial issue of modern medicine. The fact is that with this disease is very high percentage of self-recovery - more than 90%.
There was a period of time in the late 20th century, when on a wave of enthusiasm antibiotics were prescribed to almost all patients with otitis. However, it is now considered permissible the first two days after the onset of pain to dispense with antibiotics. If after two days there is no tendency to improve, then an antibacterial drug is already prescribed. For all types of otitis media may be required for oral administration.
In this case, of course, the patient must be under medical supervision. The decision on the need for antibiotics is very responsible and should only be taken by a doctor. On the scales on the one hand, the possible side effects of antibiotic therapy, on the other - the fact that every year in the world of complications of otitis deaths of 28 thousand people.
The main antibiotics, which are used in the treatment of otitis media in adults:
- Amoxicillin - Ospamox, Flemoxin, Amosin, Ecobol, Flemoxin solute
- Aamoxicillin with clavulanic acid - Augmentin, Flemoclav, Ecoclav
- Cefuroxime - Zinnat, Aksetin, Zinacef, Cefurus and other drugs.
The course of antibiotic therapy should be 7-10 days.
Ear drops are also widely prescribed for inflammation of the middle ear. It is important to remember that there is a fundamental difference between drops, which are prescribed before the perforation of the tympanic membrane and after its appearance. Let me remind you, the sign of perforation is the appearance of suppuration.
Before the appearance of perforation, droplets with an analgesic effect are prescribed. These include drugs such as:
- Otinum - (150-190 rub) - choline salicylate
- Otipaks (220 rubles), Otirelaks (140 rubles) - lidocaine and phenazone
- Otizol - phenazone, benzocaine, phenylephrine hydrochloride
Drops with an antibiotic does not make any sense to dig in this phase, as the inflammation goes behind the impenetrable eardrum for them.
After the appearance of the perforation, the pain passes and it is no longer possible to drip painkillers, as they can damage the sensitive cells of the cochlea. When a perforation occurs, access for drops inside the middle ear appears, so you can instill drops containing an antibiotic. However, ototoxic antibiotics (gentamicin, Framicetinum, Neomycin, Polymyxin B), preparations containing phenazone, alcohols or choline salicylate can not be used.
Drops with an antibiotic, the use of which is acceptable in the treatment of otitis in adults: "Tsiprofarm "Normaks "Otofa "Miramistin" and others.
Paracentesis or tympanotomy
In some situations with inflammation of the middle ear may need a small surgical intervention - paracentesis (or tympanotomy) of the tympanic membrane. It is believed that the need for paracentesis arises, if the background of antibiotic therapy for three days, the pain still continues to bother the person. Paracentesis is performed under local anesthesia: a special incision in the tympanic membrane makes a small incision through which pus begins to exit. This incision is beautifully overgrown after the cessation of suppuration.
Treatment of labyrinthitis is a complex medical problem and is conducted in a hospital under the control of an ENT doctor and neurologist. In addition to antibiotic therapy, funds are needed to improve microcirculation inside the cochlea, neuroprotective drugs (protecting the nervous tissue from damage).
Prevention of otitis
Preventive measures for external otitis are the thorough drying of the ear canal after bathing. Also, avoid traumatizing the ear canal - do not use keys and pins as an ear instrument.
For people who often suffer from inflammation of the external ear, there are drops based on olive oil, which protect the skin when swimming in a pond, for example, "Vaxol".
Prevention of otitis media consists of general strengthening measures - hardening, vitamin therapy, administration of immunomodulators (drugs that improve immunity). It is also important to treat diseases of the nose in a timely manner, which are the main causative factor in inflammation of the middle ear.
Ear Otitis: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment. How to treat otitis with folk remedies
Otitis is a disease that occurs because of the development of the inflammatory process in various parts of the hearing organ. Most often this illness manifests itself with pain and intoxication syndrome, fever, and in some cases even hearing impairment is observed.
Why there is an external otitis
Often the otitis of the external ear is accompanied by lesions of the middle and outer parts of the organ. An external disease can develop as a result of an infection that penetrates tissues through minor scratches that occur when the outer shell is damaged. The cause of this can be thermal, chemical burns, mechanical injuries and so on. In this case, the main causative agents of the disease are staphylococci and streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus and so on. Also, external ear otitis often occurs in people who suffer from metabolic disorders in the body, hypervitaminosis, gout and diabetes.
It should be noted that this ailment begins with an inflammatory process, which initially captures only the surface layer of shells. Gradually, the otitis is transferred to the surrounding tissues. Often, the disease spreads to the eardrums.
Causes of otitis media
As for otitis media, it develops mainly due to infections of the nasopharynx. In this situation, the causative agent of the disease penetrates into the middle ear cavity through the auditory tube. In this case, the agents of ARVI will cause otitis media. Treatment will be aimed at eliminating the underlying disease. What provokes such a disease? Often the middle ear otitis occurs with parainfluenza, influenza, rhino- and adenovirus infection, respiratory syncytial disease and others. Also, this ailment develops in diseases caused by such bacteria as hemophilic rod, moraxella, streptococcus pyogenic, pneumococcus.
Most often there is an average otitis of the ears in children, since the auditory tube is short and wide. It is worth noting that the infection can penetrate and outside with a barotrauma of eardrums or mechanical damages. Also, this infectious disease is promoted by such infectious chronic diseases as adenoids, sinusitis, tonsillitis.
In the beginning, the otitis media of the middle ear occurs as an inflammatory process on the mucous membrane of the organ. At the same time, active fluid production takes place. In viral diseases, exudate is serous. If the process is caused by various bacteria, then purulent otitis of the ear may begin with the corresponding secretions. Often, the accumulated fluid causes protrusion of the tympanic membrane. In extreme cases, it breaks. This is what is the main cause of hearing loss in the middle ear otitis.
Main symptoms and signs of external otitis media
With this disease the patient suffers from severe pain in the area of the auricle or inside the organ. Often patients complain of itching of the skin. At the same time, from the external part of the auditory organ there is separation of putrefactive secretions, which have a rather unpleasant odor. With the development of external otitis often there is an increase in temperature to subfebrile indicators.
Main symptoms and signs of development of otitis media
Begins otitis media of the middle ear acutely. In this case, strong painful sensations of the shooting or pulsating character are manifested. This disease causes a rise in body temperature, usually up to 38 ° C and above. There are also symptoms such as intoxication, manifested by muscle pain, loss of appetite, headache, weakness. Often, when otitis media appear signs that correspond to acute respiratory infections, such as coughing, swelling in the throat, runny nose. In this case, the patient is greatly concerned about the decrease in hearing, noise and stuffiness in the ears.
In newborns, the otitis media of the middle ear appears slightly differently. The child is constantly naughty and worried. In this case, the baby is not able to suck. A few days later the perforation of the eardrums takes place. As a result, the pain sensations decrease. From the ear canal, fluid gradually begins to flow out. It can be in the form of pus or transparent. Over time, the number of secretions decreases, as the tympanic membrane begins to scar, and pain sensations decrease. With proper treatment, the ear otitis in the child disappears, and the hearing organ is fully restored.
Complications of otitis
If you do not engage in timely treatment of the disease or treat it incorrectly, the following complications may occur: thrombosis of venous sinuses, and in rare cases even sepsis, abscess and meningitis, labyrinthitis and purulent mastoiditis, impaired hearing functions and even deafness, cohesive otitis media of the middle ear, chronic inflammation, persistent perforation of the drum webbeds.
Diagnosis of the disease
To diagnose "an otitis of an ear" the expert of a narrow profile can only. Diagnosis of the same disease is based on otorhinolaryngological and clinical examination of the patient. With the instrumental method of identifying the disease, otoscopy is usually used, which allows to examine the drum membranes and an external auditory canal with the help of an otoscope, as well as omicroscopy, carried out with the help of surgical optics. Often used audiometry, determining the severity of hearing, and tympanometry, which is a study of the mobility of tympanum membranes.
In order to exclude the development of complications of this disease, the doctor can apply a computer tomography of the skull bone structures, as well as brain research using radiography.
Often, to produce the correct diagnosis and to distinguish purulent and viral otitis media, a puncture of the tympanic membrane is done. This allows you to extract a certain amount of accumulated liquid for its further investigation. In this case, even bacteriological culture can be made, which allows to determine what is the causative agent of the infection. After all, before treating the otitis of the ear, it is necessary to know the cause of its occurrence.
Treatment of otitis media
So, otitis ears - how to treat this disease? Most often, his therapy is conservative and is performed on an outpatient basis with an easy flow in the otorhinolaryngologist. Mandatory patients are hospitalized, who have severe otitis media in their ears. Treatment of such a disease under the supervision of a doctor allows you to avoid complications. Children with otitis media of any degree are also in need of hospitalization. At the same time, the definition of tactics of combating the disease and its direct treatment is carried out only after a thorough examination of the patient by the doctor.
Usually, the patient is prescribed antibiotics if he has a bacterial otitis of the ear. Treatment in this case is carried out by such drugs as "Ceftriaxone" Cefotaxime "Cefuroxime" Clavulanate "Amoxicillin and also by means of" Midekamycin "Azithromycin" Clarithromycin ". If the patient suffers from purulent otitis, then his therapy uses respiratory fluoroquinolone, for example, the drug "Moxifloxacin" or "Levofloxacin". For the treatment of external diseases apply special drops in the ears with otitis. For example, it can be means of "Polidex" or "Otofa".
To reduce pain and other manifestations of the disease, drops are used in the ears in otitis, which are used in complex therapy: Otopix and Otisol. Many specialists prescribe washing with solutions of antiseptics of auditory canals. However, this method is effective only in otitis externa. In order to overcome the inflammatory process, the doctor can prescribe for the intake of antipyretics - ibuprofen and aspirin. These medications have moderate analgesic properties.
As for warming up and physiotherapy, these methods of treatment are allowed only after consulting with specialists. In most cases, everything depends on the degree of the disease.
Bee products for otitis treatment
To cure otitis media, you can prepare drops based on honey. For this, it is necessary to dilute this product in warm water, observing the proportions one to one. Several drops of solution are added to the patient's ear.
Supplement this therapy can be tincture of propolis 20%. This means is impregnated with a tampon made of gauze, which is injected into the diseased ear. The course of such therapy is two to three weeks.
10% tincture of propolis can be used to instill ears. To do this, you need to tilt your head to your shoulder and drop just a few drops into your ear canal. So the remedy will penetrate into the middle ear. The head should be held in this position for several minutes.
Tincture of mint at otitis
So, than to treat otitis in the home? Of course, herbs. An excellent remedy for this disease is tincture of mint. For its preparation, several spoons of dried mint should be poured with about a glass of ordinary vodka. The drug should stand for several days in a closed container. In the finished product, pieces of gauze are moistened and injected into the ear. This tincture can quickly eliminate otitis media. Treatment can be supplemented with medicines with the permission of the attending physician.
This is another tincture, which is considered to be quite effective in otitis. To make it, you need to take a few spoons of dried herbs and pour 100 milliliters of vodka. The drug is injected seven days in total darkness. Gauze turundas are wetted in the finished tincture, and then they are put in ears.
The same method prepares tinctures of calendula and St. John's wort. These funds can eliminate the main symptoms, ease the patient's condition and eliminate otitis media.
Teas and tinctures against otitis of the ears
Improve the overall condition of the patient allows a variety of teas made from plants. Healing qualities are possessed by a drink prepared from the petals of a red rose, black currant berries, dog rose and raspberry roots.
To wash the ear can be used infusion of leaves of the noble laurel. To make it, take a few spoons of pre-crushed leaves. This amount of grass is poured into a glass of boiling water and left for several hours. The present leaves are filtered, and the infusion is used to treat otitis. Before use, it should be heated to be slightly warm. With purulent otitis, the infusion of leaves of the laurel is buried right in the ear.
Medicine from vegetables
Against purulent otitis can be used ordinary garlic. For this, the cleared tooth is inserted into the ear. A good drug for otitis ear is the onion, the gruel of which is laid out on a piece of gauze. The received compress is put in a sick ear. Red beet has the necessary properties. The vegetable is rubbed on a grater and transferred to an enameled container. To the resulting gruel is added a glass of water and a dessert spoon of honey. Capacity is put on a small fire, and its contents are brought to a boil. Keep the broth on fire for another 15 minutes. The finished mass is cooled and used as compresses, wrapped in a piece of gauze. Polyethylene film and cotton wool are placed on top. It is fixed with a warm scarf for several hours. Follow the procedure should be several times a day.
When otitis external or middle ear, you should definitely consult a doctor for advice. A neglected disease without timely treatment entails severe consequences. Before treating the otitis of the ear, you need to undergo a complete examination. It is not necessary to engage in the therapy of folk remedies on your own, as an incorrectly selected medication can only lead to a worsening of the patient's condition.
Otitis of the ear: types of otitis and causes of development
- Otitis in children
- Otitis in adults
Ear Otitis is an ENT disease of the hearing organ, characterized by an inflammation of one of the ear sections connected together.
The reasons for the development of otitis media can be very different, ranging from mechanical damage and improper personal hygiene, to serious complications arising from acute respiratory infections, influenza and colds.
Few people know, but even a common runny nose in neglected form can become the beginning not only of maxillary sinusitis, but also of otitis media.
Let us consider in more detail what otitis media are and what types of this disease are encountered.
The structure of the human ear is divided into three interconnected parts, which bear the following names:
- external ear;
- middle ear;
- inner ear.
Depending on the specific part of the body the inflammatory process is taking place, in medicine it is customary to distinguish three types of otitis:
Ear canitis: symptoms of the disease in childrenOtitis in children (see the photo on the left) occurs much more often than otitis in adults whose symptoms are identical. First of all, this is due to the not fully developed structure of individual tissues and parts of the hearing organ.
Also, the symptoms of otitis media (also called inflammation of the middle ear) are observed in children with reduced immunity or due to complications of viral, colds, flu.
As already noted above, the disease is divided into three types. For each type of otitis, adults and children have their own symptoms and signs.
Whenexternal otitis media, the causes of which are often violations of the rules of personal hygiene of the child, microtrauma of the shell of the ear, internal boils, observed:
- elevated body temperature (up to 39 ° C);
- the child's refusal to eat;
- capriciousness and irritability;
- poor sleep;
- unreasonable crying;
- puffiness and redness of the auricle;
- the appearance of small bubbles on the skin around the ear;
- pain in ear is constant or when touching;
- an increase in parotid lymph nodes.
MedicationAmoxicillin Otipax Ceftriaxone Azithromycin Dioxydin Protargol Polidexa Dimexide Levomecol Flemoxin Solutab Sumamed Otofa Miramistin Otipax
Whenaverage otitis, which most often occurs against the background of acute respiratory viral infections, as well as in children with low immunity, the following symptomatic pattern is observed:
- continuous crying;
- lack of sleep;
- the child's desire to rub or scratch his ear (rub on the pillow);
- refusal of food;
- painful reaction when pressing on the tragus (outer cartilage of the auricle);
- elevated temperature;
- purulent discharge from the ear, possibly with an admixture of blood (with a purulent form of acute otitis media).
Wheninternal otitis, manifested much less frequently than the two previous forms, but it is much more dangerous than them as a result complications of otitis media or against the background of a general serious infectious disease are characterized by the following symptoms:
- elevated temperature;
- noise in ears;
- loss of balance;
- hearing loss.
Diagnosis of the symptoms of the disease will be helped by the characteristic symptoms of otitis of the ear, but this does not give the right to self-medicate. At the first manifestations of inflammation of the middle ear, it is necessary to seek help from an otolaryngologist, who, based on a real clinical picture, will prescribe the right treatment.
Symptoms of a cold in the ear in adults
Unlike children, otic otitis, the symptoms of which are known to many of us since childhood, in adulthood happen much less often and is mainly the result of hypothermia, violations of personal hygiene and complications after a viral cold diseases.
Species of otitisMiddle ear External Sharp Bilateral Allergic Outward diffuse Perforating Inside Child Eustachyte
It is much easier to diagnose an individual's disease in an adult than a child in the first place, because he can describe in detail the whole picture, including the power of pain in the ears. This will help determine the severity of the disease.
However, only the doctor can make a final verdict and prescribe the appropriate treatment for otitis media of the middle ear, after having undergone proper examination with the help of special ENT instruments.
Characterize the adult otitis as a cold of the ear, its symptoms are similar to children's:
- congestion of the ears and hearing loss;
- acute or aching pain in the ears;
- elevated temperature (not mandatory);
- headaches and dizziness;
- pains that give to the neck, teeth, whiskey, forehead;
- weakness and general malaise;
- nausea and vomiting.
In order to avoid the occurrence of such diseases of the ear, proper preventive maintenance should be carried out, and then the pain in the ears will not bother you or your children.
How and how to treat otitis media - doctor's prescriptions and recipes of folk medicine
How to treat an otitis of an ear the doctor the otolaryngologist defines, having established a kind and a degree of disease.
Treatment of otitis mediaTreatment of otitis externa Treatment of otitis media of the middle ear Treatment of purulent otitis Ear drops Ear pills Antibiotics Ear wax Ear candles In adults In children In pregnant women
In any case, first of all, drug therapy is aimed at the destruction of bacteria that contribute to the development of otitis media. It is done with the help of antibiotics, and selected such drugs that can not only to eliminate the bacterial damage of the body, but also easily penetrate into the ear drum cavity to the hearth disease.
The most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of otitis media- Tsifran, Flemoklav, Solyutab.As a local treatment, special ear drops-antiseptics are used, most often in the ENT practice, the old-fashioned method uses a solution of boric acid.
However, there are a number of other similar drugs of a new generation that can easily cope with infections.
In addition, such drops often include anesthesia, which helps to significantly reduce and eliminate pain.
Some of the best ear drops from otitis are Sophradex, Otipax, Otinum, Garazon.
In combination with ear drops in otitis, otolaryngologists often prescribe vasoconstrictive drops in the nose (Naphthyzine, Nazol, Galazolin, Otrivin and etc.), thanks to which it is possible to remove swelling of the mucous membrane of the Eustachian tube and thereby reduce the load on the eardrum.
In addition to drops in the nose in the complex can be appointed and antihistamines (antiallergic) funds, pursuing the same goal - removing the edema of the mucosa. These can be tablets of Suprastin, Diazolinum, Loratadina, etc.
If there is an increased body temperature, which often causes otitis media, mandatory prescribed antipyretic drugs, which are also able to partially relieve or reduce pain in the ears. The most safe and effective remedy for temperature is Paracetamol.
All of the above drugs used to treat otitis media can not be regarded as a guide to action. The question, than to treat an ear otitis independently, should not stand at all. Treatment of this disease, like most other things, can only take place under the guidance of a qualified doctor.
With a timely visit to the otolaryngologist and the exact observance of all prescriptions, the ear otitis passes quickly enough without leaving any consequences.
How to treat otitis with folk remedies
In addition to drug therapy, there are many ways of alternative treatment of otitis media. I must say that such methods are acceptable for use and are mostly of an auxiliary nature. However, it should not be forgotten that people's prescriptions can be used only after consulting a doctor and in no case should they self-medicate to avoid complications and irreversible consequences.
Folk remediesTreatment with folk remedies Home treatment Camphor alcohol Geranium Hydrogen peroxide Tincture of propolis Tincture Calendula Furacil Alcohol Washing the Ear Aloe Boric Acid Warming Up the Compress on the Ear Blowing the Hearing Pipes
Depending on the form and degree of the disease, otitis symptoms are accompanied by different symptoms, on the basis of which various recipes of folk medicine are applied.
Recipe number 1.For example, to reduce tinnitus and prevent the development of otitis, it is recommended to chew buds of fragrant cloves or cook on based on the broth, observing the proportions of 15 grams of cloves 100 grams of hot water and take it on a teaspoon 2-3 times throughout day.
Recipe number 2.With hearing loss after otitis, it is recommended to brew and drink tea from rose petals (red) for two weeks, which will help restore hearing in a short time.
Recipe number 3.To cure otitis externa, one should take the root of elecampane, incinerate it on fire, and then grind it in a coffee grinder and mix it with a small amount of lamb fat. Lubricate the prepared earwax with otitis shell to complete recovery.
Recipe number 4.To reduce the symptoms of acute otitis will help tincture of nightshade sweet and bitter. To make it, you need to take 2 tablespoons of chopped grass and pour 100 grams of vodka. Insist for a week, then inject into your ear soaked in a means of cotton turuns 2-3 times a day.
You can also cook the infusion. To do this, pour a tablespoon of herbs with a glass of boiling water. Insist for an hour and apply as in the case of tincture, in the form of embedded turundas.
Recipe number 5.To reduce severe pain in the ears with otitis will help glycerin with alcohol. It is necessary to combine the two ingredients in equal proportions (:), moisten the turunda in this mixture and lay it in the diseased ear.
The recipe number 6.When asked how and how to treat ear inflammation, many will give an unambiguous answer - dry heat.
This is really an effective method for acute otitis, which is widely used in medicine (blue lamp, UHF).
It can also be used in the home if the ear is inflamed. To do this, take ordinary table salt, heat it in a clean dry frying pan and fill it in a linen bag.
Through an additional folded in several times the tissue, the patient's ear should be heated for 30 minutes.
It is important to know
You can not heat your ears with the help of dry heat at an elevated body temperature and purulent secretions from the auricles..