For nasal congestion in a child or adult, there are always reasons, which we will consider. After all, free nasal breathing is important for a person not only to sleep, eat, play or work, but also to stimulate and maintain the brain in an effective active state in order to develop and solve many problems in the modern world and at home.
In addition, when children and adults are constantly stuffy, they are at risk of contamination and hypothermia of the respiratory tract; it is difficult for them to concentrate attention, remember and learn; chronic fatigue occurs and sleep is disturbed; there are headaches, pain in the nasopharynx and ears, even hearing may gradually decrease.
Why pawns the nose? Causes of nasal congestion in children and adults
Simple causes of nasal congestion - excessively dry air in the room overdry the mucous membrane of the nose, and if the air indoors or outdoors is dusty, smoky, then the nasal passages are polluted and irritated. Tobacco smoke, for those who smoke indoors, negatively affects not only the smokers themselves, but also the passive smokers - family members.
The main processes occurring in the nasal mucosa with congestion are its swelling and swelling, expansion of the vasculature and an increase in the production and separation of mucus.
If the stuffy nose is, the cause should be looked for in inflammation or allergies.
Inflammatory diseases of the nose
Inflammatory processes in the nasal passages are accompanied by such diseases ....
Acute viral rhinitis. With it, the mucous discharge from the nose is transparent, watery and abundant, accompanied by stuffiness and difficulty with nasal breathing. In addition to the mucous, the skin of the nose suffers, constantly wetting and rubbed with handkerchiefs. The skin reddening is replaced by its maceration and the subsequent formation of crusts. In cases of herpetic lesions, severe pain and blisters with light contents appear in the nose, which are opened and gradually heal with the formation of scabs without scars.
Bacterial rhinitis. The pathogenic bacteria can replace the damaging viral process. The snot change color to yellow or green. In this case, after nose nose is out, free nasal breathing can return for a while. The sense of smell does not suffer much.
Fungal process, more often candida, gives a white discharge from the nose, in which veins of the fungal mycelium are visible. The mucous nasal cavity can even be eroded with the formation of wet, painful surfaces.
Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. Strongly pawns the nose with inflammation of the sinuses: etmoiditis, sinusitis, sinusitis. The nose is laid, there is no snot, or they are meager, mostly purulent. Smells cease to feel both halves of the nose or one. There are pains in the projection of the inflamed sinus, which increase with tilting forward or thrown head. Often the body temperature rises. Sinusitis can proceed according to the type of acute inflammation or pass into the chronic, when periods without complaints are replaced by increased symptoms.
Allergic rhinitis. Against the backdrop of the immune system, an individual response to certain substances, the nasal mucosa begins to respond to a multitude of allergens. Appear: swelling and swelling, redness and itching, frequent sneezing.
A typical sign of an allergic rhinitis is a transparent, abundant discharge, sometimes called a "glass".
Seasonal rhinitissuch nasal congestion can be seasonal, in response to flowering grasses or trees. Then allergic rhinitis flows within the framework of a hay fever. Often it is caused by cross allergens, for example, birch pollen and apples, blooming alders and nuts. If the nose is heavily stuffy after contact with the allergen, it will react to it the next time.
Year-roundallergic rhinitis- cause animal hair, household dust, drugs, detergents, perfumes. Then the nose is constantly stuffed, snot appearing on contact even with a low concentration of allergens. Often, nasal congestion and snotty allergic origin combined with eye damage (allergic conjunctivitis), in which the eyelids flushes and swirl, the proteins turn red, there is abundant lacrimation and pain in the eyes.
Allergies can also invade the bronchial tree, then allergic rhinitis is supplementedbronchial asthma. Earlier it was thought that the allergic rhinitis is transformed into it, but modern research has proved that these are parallel processes with similar mechanisms of development.
Vasomotor rhinitis. It develops due to a violation of the vascular tone of the nasal mucosa, which leads to its swelling. Here, the activity of the autonomic nervous system is disrupted. Under her influence, the vessels in the nose expand. Appears edema. Goblet cells thus begin to secrete an increased amount of mucus, which additionally clogs the nasal passages. Lays the nose and ears, a clear discharge separates from the nose.
Vasomotor rhinitis occurs with the growth of the bony formations of the nose, chronic inflammation of the mucosa or under the influence of prolonged use of vasoconstrictive drops in the nose.
If the nose is stuffy, but there's no rhinitis
It also happens that the nose pawns, and thus the classic rhinitis is not observed. Possible reasons.
Adenoidsin children, the proliferation of lymphoid tissue in the nose. This frequent problem of children under six years of age and significantly complicates nasal breathing. Sometimes the removal of adenoids does not finally solve the problem, as the tissue can re-grow. A child with this disease keeps his mouth open all the time. Who is forced to breathe. With age, the problem can be solved independently. Otherwise, the adenoids are removed.
Polyps of the nasal mucosa. They can occur in adults on the background of chronic inflammatory diseases of the nasal cavity. Men are more often ill. The disease passes through three stages, gradually overlapping the upper third, half, and then the entire nasal passage. Secondary infection provokes even the development of bronchial asthma of an infectious-allergic origin.
Curvature of nasal septumviolate the patency, as a rule, one half of the nose. It can be difficult to breathe through your nose.
Other reasons. Large soft sky, infringement of the innervation of the soft-palate tongue, lack of teeth can lead to the soft palate sinking during a night's sleep. At night there are episodes of the absence of nasal breathing (apnea), which leads to snoring and creates a risk for the development of sudden death, requiring a very attentive attitude and compulsory campaign to a specialist.
Nasal congestion during pregnancy
Women in the position amid a high level of progesterone and prostaglandins often need nose drops more often than usual.
They are without any allergy or cold, there is a stuffy nose. Lays a nose without a snot. In this case, not only the mucous membrane but also the soft tissues of the nose swells, its shape may change. In the middle of pregnancy, nosebleeds may appear.
All these phenomena independently pass without treatment after childbirth, when the hormonal background stabilizes within the usual limits.
If the baby's nose does not breathe
Children up to three months have an unadapted nasal mucosa. They are characterized by a physiological runny nose, when the nasal congestion of the baby is accompanied by a mucous transparent discharge. This is a vascular reaction that helps the baby to better adapt to the bacterial, viral and dust environment of the outside world.
To treat such a runny nose is not necessary if the child can easily suck, do not worry and does not fever. To take something is necessary, when the child refuses a breast or can not suck because of problems with the breathing of the nose. In any case it is advisable to show the baby to the pediatrician.
- A child up to a year may have a nose if he suffers a viral infection, bacterial rhinitis. Such conditions can be complicated by otitis.
- Children after one and a half years can already suffer from etmoiditis, when prolonged nasal congestion is accompanied by fever and purulent discharge from the nose.
- Older children suffer from the same diseases as adults.
Tumors, as one of the causes of nasal congestion
Benign neoplasms of the nasal cavity lead to obstruction on the side of the lesion.
- Osteoma - a bone tumor, as a rule, penetrates into the nasal cavity again from the frontal or maxillary sinus. More often affects young people.
- Tumors of vascular origin - hemangiomas (red moles), lymphangiomas, angiofibromas give not only difficulties with nose breathing, but also bleeding from the nose.
Malignant neoplasms grow directly in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses.
- Squamous cell carcinoma is twice as likely to be diagnosed in men. A small tumor resembles a nodule with a superficial sore. Large - loose node, overlapping the nasal passage.
- Adenocarcinoma is a glandular cancer, often associated with the carrier of the Epstein-Barr virus. Characterization of tumor ulceration and early appearance of metastases.
- Sarcoma of the nasal cavity is a connective tissue tumor coated with mucous membranes. Rapidly growing, growing into the nasal cavity and orbit.
Small benign tumors are cauterized or removed with a loop or scalpel. Malignant or large neoplasms are subject to surgical removal (including a cyber knife with a laser) and subsequent radiotherapy.
What to do if the stuffy nose, than to treat stuffy nose
First: Humidification of indoor air
Before taking on medicines in case of shortness of nasal breathing, ventilate the room, moisten the air in it with a special household humidifier or by hanging a wet diaper or towel on the radiator.
Second: Address to the doctor
The second point for chronic nasal obstruction is going to the otolaryngologist or the therapist. As behind banal zalozhennostju many illnesses or diseases can disappear, it is inexpedient uncontrolledly to use medicines.
Third: Vasodilating drops
If urgent help is required, the drugs of choice will be vasoconstrictor drops in the nose. They narrow the capillaries in the nasal mucosa. With this, the edema subsides and the patency of the respiratory passages is restored.
Alpha-2-adrenomimeticsnarrow arterioles, veins and precapillary sphincters. Reduce the flow of blood to the venous sinuses. Due to this, puffiness becomes less. Operate longer thanMesatoneandPhenylephrine. May cause drying out of the mucous membrane, resulting in a burning sensation in the nose.
If you take drugs for longer than a week, then their effectiveness drops. Further, a complication such as a ricochet rhinitis may occur, when the nose begins to flow constantly, and the obstruction only increases.
Nazivin, Nazolon the basis of oxymetazoline,Naphthysine, Sanorinon the basis of Naphazoline,Xylometazoline(Otryvin, Galazolin, Ximelin) is a good choice for rhinitis, sinusitis and allergic congestion of the nose.
If the month is stuffy, then these drugs should not be used. They are also contraindicated in glaucoma, arterial hypertension, hyperthyroidism, diabetes, in infants.
- Alpha-1-adrenomimetics: Mesaton, Phenylephrine affect the smooth muscles of small arteries, narrowing them. Preferred for allergy and viral processes.
- Drops that enhance the release of norepinephrine. Ephedrine and drops on its basis are now used little, since it can cause addiction.
- Epinephrine is a beta-adrenomimetic, similar in effect to adrenaline. Contraindicated with chronic stuffiness.
Fourth: Drugs for allergies
Antihistamines. The blockers of the histamine receptors lower the effect on histamine mediator inflammatory tissues. Reduce allergic reactions, such as vasodilation, mucosal edema. As a result, edema, sneezing, itching decreases.
They use second and third generation tablets: Cetirizine, Acryvastin, Azelastine, Levocabastin, Astemizolum, Loratadine, Oxatamide, Dimethinden, Terfenadine, Levocetirizine, Desloratadine, Carebastin, Epinastine, Fexofenadine. They are used for allergic rhinitis, in the acute period of rhinitis and sinusitis.
- In similar situations, the stabilizers of the walls of mast cells are effective: Cromoglin, Sodium cromoglycate, Cromogexal, Lomusal.
- With severe allergies, you have to resort to glucocorticoids: budesonide, mometasone, beclomethasone, fluticasone. On their basis they produce drugs: Nasobek, Baconase, Nazonex, Fliksonase. NAZONEX is the drug of choice for overdoses or dependencies on vasoconstrictor drops.
- Polidex (vasoconstrictor in combination with an antibiotic)
- Rinoprint (capsules, Phenidafrin, tapering vessels and Carbinoxamine, fighting allergies)
- Rinotayss Dr. Theiss (antimicrobial eucalyptus oil and vasoconstrictor Xylometazoline).
Than to treat a stuffy nose in children
In addition to hygienic measures for moistening and cleansing the inhaled air in infants, treatment begins withsaline inhalationsacrossnebulizer. This allows you to moisturize the mucous membrane and cope with simple rhinitis.
You can also use analogues of saline (Aquamaris, Aqualor) which are buried in the nose by drop in each nasal passage. In children unwashed washings of the nasal passages due to the risk of secondary inflammation of the middle ear.
Mixtures of essential oils (Pinosol, Sinupret) are suitable for the treatment of viral and bacterial infections of the nasal cavity and sinuses. In the nose drops are instilled in turn into each nasal passage. It takes 1-2 drops.
A convenient treatment option for purulent processes in children isProtargol.
Vasoconstrictive child may be usedNazivin.
Combined preparations:Vibrocil(vasoconstrictor Phenylephrine in combination with anti-allergic Fenistil) can be used in any inflammatory or allergic processes in infants.
With abundant detachable preference is givenRinoflumicylic(narrowing blood vessels of sulphate Tuaminheptane and acetylcysteine, diluting mucus).
Thus, if the nose is stuffy, you need to see a doctor (therapist, pediatrician, ENT or allergist). Self-medication can lead to undesirable consequences, make it difficult to diagnose, give a ricochet rhinitis or mask the symptoms of tumors.
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If the nose does not breathe: massage of the paranasal sinuses
Gymnastics - a massage of the sinuses to eliminate nasal congestion.
Sometimes people for years can not solve such problems as allergies, chronic runny nose, sore throats, shortness of breath, inflammation of mucous nasopharynx, recurrent sinusitis, and much more.
When the drops do not help in the nose ...
A simple and effective massage, if done daily (once or twice a day) is able to solve a lot of questions with a nose that does not breathe well.
Video author: Margarita Levchenko.
Source of publication:http://zdravotvet.ru/prichiny-zalozhennosti-nosa-u-rebenka-ili-vzroslogo-chto-delat-esli-zalozhen-nos/