Flu 2016 - symptoms, treatment
Annually, viral agents of acute respiratory infections are mutated, and as a result, epidemiological indicators inevitably increase. In the current period, a record number of cases fell on influenza 2016 - symptoms and treatment of this pathologies are complicated by the appearance of new antigenic strains resistant to preventive measures and vaccination. These include subtypes of the virus group A (H1N1, H2N2) and B.
Prevention and treatment of early symptoms of influenza 2016
According to the conclusion of the World Health Organization, the only true measure of prevention is vaccination. This year, the vaccines include 3 prevalent strains of influenza:
- A / Switzerland / 9715293/2013 (H3N2);
- A / California / 7/2009 (H1N1) pdm09 is the main virus;
- B / Phuket / 3073/2013.
Despite the proven efficacy of existing vaccines, they work only in 80% of cases, so therapists advise using additional antiviral drugs.
For the treatment of the first symptoms of influenza 2016, it is recommended to use the following tools in the incubation period:
It is worth noting that Relenza and Tamiflu are effective only in the first 48 hours with the appearance of early signs of the disease. If therapy begins later, it is advisable to use the remaining drugs from the list.
The main symptoms and treatment of influenza during the 2016 epidemic
With a normally functioning immune system, the clinical manifestations of acute respiratory viral infections are poorly expressed and do not even require special therapy.
In those cases when there is a severe variant of the course of influenza, the following characteristic signs appear:
- a sharp rise in body temperature above 3, degrees;
- severe weakness and drowsiness;
- reduced working capacity;
- profuse sweating;
- the occurrence of cough and cold only after 2-3 days from the debut of the disease;
- painful sensations behind the sternum, in the trachea;
- aches in large joints and muscles;
- redness of the eyes, lacrimation;
- feeling of heaviness in the region of the superciliary arches;
- difficulty breathing on inspiration;
Rarely, such manifestations of intoxication as vomiting and indigestion are associated.
For all types of influenza, a single treatment algorithm has long been developed:
- bed rest;
- daily airing of the room;
- frequent wet cleaning;
- abundant drinking;
- diet with the predominance of light soups, boiled meat, cereals, vegetables and fruits;
- reception of vitamins (Supradin, Vitrum).
The drug approach is to alleviate the main signs of the disease.
To treat the symptoms of influenza 2016, anti-inflammatory drugs are used - Paracetamol, Ibuprofen and their analogues. They can reduce the severity of pain syndromes, aches in joints, reduce body temperature.
If there are additional signs (cough, swelling of the mucous membranes, runny nose), appropriate medications are prescribed:
It is important to remember that therapy of progressive symptoms is carried out only under the supervision of a doctor, since ARVI often causes complications in the form of pneumonia, otitis and sinusitis.
Treatment of flu symptoms in 2016 folk remedies
Unconventional medicine refers to symptomatic therapy, trying to use it to cure severe forms of influenza is very dangerous.
Simple and effective folk methods of alleviating the signs of ARVI:
- Every day, eat a clove of garlic or a little onions, deeply inhale their scent.
- In drinking water, add fresh lemon juice (1 tbsp. spoon for 1 liter).
- Use warm compotes or water-diluted jam.
- Instead of tea, take herbal decoctions based on the flowers of chamomile, raspberry and currant leaves, hips.
- Make hot 10-minute hand baths.
Flu 2016: How to avoid infection?
Autumn is already on the doorstep, and this means that seasonal diseases make themselves felt. We will study the characteristics of influenza this year, the methods of treatment and prevention, as well as the main symptoms of the disease.
Information that the virus mutates for more than a year at all on hearing. The best specialists of WHO are engaged in the study of its species, analyze and predict which strain will make itself felt in the autumn-winter period and will be a real test for human health.
Every year, people with low immunity suffer from seasonal infectious and viral diseases. The main danger of the disease is that the virus is prone to frequent mutations. Every 10-20 years, the epidemiological situation changes drastically and is complicated by a complete mutation of the strain. But this does not mean that the symptomatology of the disorder is drastically changing. As a rule, more dangerous symptoms are added to the "classic" signs.
For 2015-2016 epidemiologists expect influenza outbreaks for November-January. And this means that the planned vaccination will be carried out in September-October. But for this season experts predict a stable situation even in the first months of cold weather. Therefore, there is an excellent chance to prepare for a meeting with the infection and to neutralize it.
Flu season 2016 is a hidden danger
For the coming season, doctors do not foreshadow catastrophic outbreaks of influenza. But this does not mean that you do not need to prevent the disease. Since the virus is rightfully considered the most dangerous among known virus lesions. The greatest danger is for people with chronic diseases of the respiratory system and a weakened immune system. The risk group includes elderly people, pregnant women and children.
In 2016, analysts predict an insignificant activity of earlier known strains:
- A / California / 7/2009 (H1N1) pdm09 is a subtype of swine flu, which became known in 2009. It is this virus that caused the epidemic all over the world. The greatest danger is the complications that very often lead to death. Infection can cause sinusitis, pneumonia and even inflammation of the meninges.
- A / Switzerland / 9715293/2013 (H3N2) is a subtype of strain A. Its danger in complications, which pathologically affect the cardiovascular system.
- B / Phuket / 3073/2013 (B / Yamagata) and B / Brisbane / 60/2008 - a subtype of strain B, refers to poorly studied viruses. The disease is difficult to diagnose because of the lubricated symptoms. But doctors do not consider it dangerous, since it does not cause life-threatening complications.
Solving the problem of influenza is significantly complicated by the fact that the symptoms that appear at its early stage can be observed in other diseases. Under the mask of influenza infection can be: tonsillitis, food poisoning, typhoid fever, rheumatism, dysentery, tuberculosis and other disorders. There are known influenza-like respiratory tract infections that occur as influenza, but are caused by very different viruses.
To date, there are eight families of such viruses, including the common cold viruses, adenoviruses, parainfluenza and 1RS viruses. Diseases caused by such an infection resemble a real flu. To determine the true pathogen that caused the outbreak, an antibody test is performed.
Flu 2015-2016: special risk groups
Any disease has certain risk groups among people who are predisposed to infection. Since influenza infection is a respiratory disease caused by viruses, its main danger is a high level of infectiousness, severe course and weight of complications. With improper treatment or lack of it, the ailment can be fatal.
Consider who is at risk for the incidence of influenza infection:
- Newborn children
Children have no immunity, which significantly increases the risk of infection. The situation is complicated by the fact that up to six months, routine vaccination is not carried out. To prevent illness, it is recommended to follow preventive measures. So, if the child is breastfed, the mother should be vaccinated. This will allow the baby to get antibodies through the milk. All who contact the child should also be vaccinated. If someone from family members have symptoms of infection, then any contact with the newborn is contraindicated.
Immunity is weakened by hormonal changes caused by the development of the fetus. The flu of 2016 in a pregnant woman is dangerous for both the woman herself and her child. The most serious consequence of an ailment is premature birth. If a woman carries the disease on her legs, this can lead to the development of various defects in the fetus, even miscarriage is possible. Prevent these processes can be timely vaccination and preventive measures.
- Elderly people
The risk of infection is caused by a number of factors, primarily - a large number of chronic diseases and a natural decrease in immunity. Misconduct has a disastrous effect on vaccination.
In addition to the above categories, at-risk groups include people with chronic diseases and disabilities, patients with impaired neurological development, asthmatics, patients with chronic lung, kidney and liver lesions, as well as people with developmental delays and mental disorders.
World Flu 2016 - already on the threshold
Mixovirus influenzae that is the influenza virus, is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae and has three forms: A, B, C. Types A and B are found in humans. Virus A is the main source of influenza epidemic, and type B provokes milder forms of the disease. Infection is determined by antigenic properties, that is, for the differentiation of A and B types, a solution of antigens of matrix proteins and antigens of non-cloproteins is used.
Consider the main clinical signs of viruses and their stages (found all over the world):
Assessment of severity
Intoxication of the body, headaches, chills, convulsive syndrome, catarrhal phenomena.
The temperature is subfebrile, with little indication of intoxication.
Without complications, a mild course.
Pathological changes from the bronchopulmonary system (hemorrhagic edema, bronchitis, segmental edema).
Body temperature 3, -3, ° C, symptoms of intoxication (head and muscle pains, adynamia, dizziness) are expressed. In rare cases, abdominal syndrome and segmental puffiness are possible.
Possible complications associated with the virus (neuritis, encephalitis and others).
The body temperature reaches critical values of 40-4 ° C. Possible loss of consciousness, nonsense, convulsions, hallucinations, nausea and vomiting.
It is characterized by bacterial complications (otitis media, purulent necrotic laryngo-tracheobranchitis, pneumonia, bronchitis)
Immunofluorescence and immunoenzyme assays have positive results
Hyperthermal Syndrome; meningo-encephalitic syndrome; hemorrhagic syndrome
World statistics indicate that annually about 15% of humanity suffers from influenza. It is this affliction that causes irreversible damage to the structures of the brain and the cardiovascular system. The European Center for Disease Control and Prevention predicts a low activity of the infection for the coming year. But isolated cases of infection are possible, which can be prevented by a timely vaccine.
The flu epidemic 2016
The beginning of the flu epidemic is forecast for January-February 2016. There is still enough time to think about the options for prevention or get vaccinated. A sharp jump in the incidence rate is possible in November-December this year. The danger of the ailment is that only limited means are required to eliminate it.
Annually more than 200 thousand people die from the disease and its complications. Since infection occurs by airborne droplets, the flu takes the form of epidemics, that is, sudden outbreaks that quickly and suddenly spread. In especially acute periods, up to 50-70% of the total population can be infected.
To prevent the catastrophic extent of the disease, it is recommended to carry out prophylaxis. To date, vaccination is considered the most effective. This method not only reduces the mortality rate and maintains health, but also has a significant economic effect. This is due to the fact that the economic damage from the virus of one person is more than $ 100, and the cost of vaccination is 6-8 times lower than the losses from the disease.
For the 2015-2016 season, the composition of influenza vaccines has been updated, according to the recommendation of the World Health Organization. In the vaccine, two strains have been replaced, and now it protects against the three most commonly encountered and serious virus complications.
The strains of influenza vaccines:
- A / California / 7/2009 (H1N1) pdm09
- A / Switzerland / 9715293/2013 (H3N2) -like virus
- B / Phuket / 3073/2013-like virus
Compulsory vaccinations are free of charge: children from 6 months, schoolchildren, students, medical, educational, transport and communal workers. And also pregnant women, patients older than 60 years, persons subject to conscription for military service and people with chronic diseases. The procedure is allowed to be carried out simultaneously with other vaccinations, except for vaccination against tuberculosis.
Flu 2016 in Russia
According to the forecasts of the Federal Health Service, an increase in the incidence of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections will begin in January 2016. February will be unsuccessful, since an epidemic of moderate intensity is assumed. According to preliminary estimates by WHO in 2016, the following strains will prevail in Russia: AH1N1, AH3N2 and influenza B. These strains became the basis of the vaccine "Grippol plus which is about to vaccinate the Russians.
In all districts, the level of morbidity is monitored to prevent an epidemic. Influenza is dangerous because of complications, the most unfavorable of which is pneumonia. To date, it is this complication that holds the leading position among infectious diseases. Particular attention is paid to informing the population at the regional level.
Quarantine-restrictive measures have been developed in medical institutions. For the period of the epidemic, additional beds were procured and drugs were purchased, which would allow patients to be hospitalized in the infectious departments in a timely manner and begin therapy.
Flu 2016 in Ukraine
The World Health Organization has published a forecast of the circulation of strains of the influenza virus in this epidemic season for the northern hemisphere, which is likely to affect Ukraine. According to the data received, the composition of the viruses has been updated, so people with a weakened immune system need to be vaccinated.
For 2015-2016, it is recommended to use vaccines against such strains as:
- A / California / 7/2009 (H1N1) pdm09
- A / Switzerland / 9715293/2013 # 01
- In / Phuket / 3073/2013
In the past epidemic season, about, cases of influenza infection. At the same time, about 13% of the total population of the ARVI got sick, 49% of them - children under 16 years old. The Ukrainian Center for Disease Control and Monitoring regularly analyzes the immune stratum of the population. Fresh information indicates insufficient immunological protection of Ukrainians, which threatens the epidemic state and dangerous complications of influenza.
Symptoms of influenza 2016: warned - means armed
Clinical signs of influenza and SARS have much in common because of the defeat of the respiratory tract and general toxic symptoms. Influenza is an acute, infectious disease with mild catarrhal symptoms and severe toxicosis. The largest lesion occurs in the trachea and large bronchi. Symptomatics varies and depends on the immune status of the patient's body and age, as well as on the type of virus and its strain.
In 2015-2016, there can be both uncomplicated and complicated forms of the disease. The incubation period can last from a few hours to 1-5 days. After this, acute clinical manifestations begin. The severity of any form depends on the severity and duration of intoxication and catarrhal symptoms.
The main sign that manifests itself in the first hours of infection. The disease begins with a sharp rise in temperature, from subfebrile to hyperthermia. If the disease has an easy form, then the temperature is not high. Severity of intoxication shows the level of fever. When infected with type A (H1N1) virus, the symptoms of intoxication are poorly expressed even at very high body temperature.
- Temperature - acute and short. The period of fever lasts 2-6 days, after which the temperature decreases. If it persists for a long period of time, then this indicates complications.
- Headache - unpleasant sensations arise in the frontal and supraorbital areas, intensify when the eyeball moves. The severity of the pain may be different, but, as a rule, it is moderate. Pronounced pains are accompanied by sleep disorders, vomiting and unfavorable symptoms from the CNS.
- General weakness - this symptom also refers to the syndrome of intoxication. There is fatigue, increased sweating, a sense of weakness. The patient complains of muscle and joint pains, aches in the whole body, and especially in the lumbosacral region.
- Appearance - the patient's face looks red, conjunctivitis, photophobia and lacrimation possible.
Another leading sign of influenza infection. But, as a rule, he recedes into the background, and in some cases is absent. The duration of catarrhal syndrome is 7-10 days, but cough may last longer.
- The oropharynx - the reddening of the soft palate with a distinction from the hard palate is observed. By the 3rd day of the disease, redness changes to a vascular network. If the ailment has a severe course, then in the soft palate there are small hemorrhages and cyanosis. The mucous membrane is restored on the 7-8th day of treatment.
- Nasopharynx - the nasal mucosa is hyperemic, dry, edematous. Nasal conchae are swollen, which significantly hinders breathing. These symptoms occur on day 2-3 of the disease and are accompanied by discharge from the nose. In the case of toxic damage to the vascular walls and intense sneezing, there may be nasal bleeding.
- Cough, tracheobronchitis, laryngitis - there are painful sensations behind the sternum, dry cough. If the flu is uncomplicated, then cough persists for 5-6 days. In addition, there is rapid breathing, pain in the throat, hoarse voices, wheezing.
- Cardiovascular system - changes due to toxic damage to the heart muscle. When the temperature rises, palpitations occur, accompanied by blanching of the skin. After this, there is sluggishness, slowing of the pulse and redness of the skin.
- Digestive system - changes are not expressed in character. There is a decrease in appetite, constipation, impaired intestinal motility. On the tongue appears a white coating, possibly an intestinal disorder.
- The urinary system - as the viruses are eliminated from the body through the kidneys, it leads to damage to the kidney tissue. In the analysis of urine appears protein and blood elements.
- CNS - toxic reactions from the nervous system entail severe headaches, drowsiness, anxiety, convulsions and loss of consciousness. In rare cases, there are meningic symptoms.
If the flu is extremely severe, complications can lead to cerebral edema and other pathologies. Lightning-fast form of influenza lesion represents a serious danger of death. Patients with chronic diseases and a weakened immune system are at risk. This form causes pulmonary and cerebral edema, various bleeding, severe respiratory failure and other complications.
Features of the flu 2016
Despite the fact that the season of acute infectious diseases has just begun, medical statistics are horrifying. Features of the flu of 2016 is that in the first week of the new year the disease was affected by about 125 thousand people. But the worst thing is an increase in the number of deaths.
The disease causes the influenza virus AN1N1, which first made itself felt in 2009. The average incidence of swine flu is 570 patients per 1, 00 population. In Ukraine, the highest rate of pathology is recorded in the Kiev and Odessa regions, the least affected in the Transcarpathian and Ternopil regions. On the territory of Russia, this strain also rages.
Because the infection is constantly mutating, this greatly complicates the process of diagnosis and treatment. In connection with the epidemiological situation, an intensified antiepidemic regime is being introduced in many cities. Schools and kindergartens are closed for quarantine, infectious hospitals are overcrowded, a masked regime is introduced. All forces are thrown on informing the population about a dangerous disease and the peculiarities of its prevention.
Who to contact?Infectionist
What is the difference between a cold and flu?
Many people believe that the flu is a synonym for the common cold. Only the temperature rose, there was a runny nose and cough, the patients immediately diagnosed themselves as a flu. Of course, this approach is completely wrong. It is very important to understand the difference between these diseases. Colds are mild diseases with sparing symptoms. Influenza and its complications can cause pneumonia and death.
Influenza infection is a viral disease that is accompanied by high fever, muscle and joint pain, weakness. The common cold is a broader concept consisting of a complex of symptoms that are caused by both bacteria and viruses. That is, to treat the flu, you need a special medicine, and for a cold you need to establish the type of the disease and only then prescribe a therapy.
- The cold develops slowly, usually with malaise, and the flu - with a sharp temperature jump and increased weakness.
- Colds can be both viral and bacterial etiology, influenza is an acute viral lesion.
- For the diagnosis of influenza, bacteriological tests are used, and laboratory tests are used to confirm the cold.
- As a rule, the cold has a favorable outcome, and the flu, especially severe and neglected forms, leads to complications and even death.
Influenza, acute respiratory infections and acute respiratory infections are colds that have a common symptom but differ in the nature of their course and duration.
Time from infection to the first signs
1-2 hours to 2-5 days
Onset of disease
Fast, there is a headache, chills, weakness.
Gradually, there is a runny nose, cough, mild weakness.
& g;, C
General malaise and fever, pain in the muscles.
The defeat of the upper respiratory tract (cough, wheezing).
As a rule, the incidence of colds increases from the end of August and lasts until the spring period. The flu is characterized by epidemiological outbreaks in December and February.
How to treat the flu 2016?
At the first symptoms of a malaise it is very important to react correctly and prevent the development of infection. Treatment of influenza is a complex of procedures that allow to destroy the virus and restore normal functioning of the organism with minimal complications.
Consider the algorithm that should be followed for influenza infection:
- Bed rest
Disease can not be carried on legs, therefore during this period it is necessary to observe bed rest and to sleep more. But do not forget that an ailment is not an excuse to spend time watching TV or at a computer.
- Drinking regime
During illness, there is increased sweating, which can lead to dehydration of the body. Therefore, to maintain the water-salt balance, you need to consume a sufficient amount of liquid (herbal teas, juices, fruit drinks, pure water).
- The climate in the apartment
It is necessary to regularly carry out wet cleaning in the room, since a moist climate helps to tolerate the disease more easily. Ventilation of the premises will allow the accumulation of accumulated microbes and viruses. In addition, fresh air promotes recovery and improves well-being. You can use a variety of aroma lamps with aromatic oils or salt lamps that kill germs.
Despite the fact that in the early days of the disease the appetite is significantly reduced, proper nutrition will enrich the body and weakened immune system with vitamins and beneficial substances. Food should be easy, the diet should predominate porridge, soups, boiled meat, fruits and vegetables.
Help to maintain the body in a tone and quickly eliminate the symptoms of the disease. Vitamin complexes - Vitrum and Supradin - have a good immunomodulating effect.
In addition to the above methods of treatment, there is also drug therapy. Acceptance of medications should be informed and recommended by the attending physician. Independently take pills is contraindicated. To date, there is no shortage of medicines that eliminate viral and colds. Consider their classification by general criteria.
Drugs for symptomatic therapy
Drugs of this category eliminate only the symptoms of the disease: heat, muscle and headaches, nasal congestion, cough. Such pills do not affect the virus, so they should be used as a secondary agent.
- Analgesics and antipyretic drugs - have analgesic effect, relieve muscle and joint pain.
- Vasoconstrictors - help to eliminate nasal congestion, swelling of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract and nasal sinuses.
- Antihistamines - reduce swelling of mucous membranes, eliminate inflammation, lacrimation and itching. Most often, patients are prescribed: Chlorphenamine, Promethazine.
The above-described drugs do not eliminate the viral infection, but soften its symptoms. Duration of therapy is 3-5 days.
Drugs affecting the immune system and the virus
These drugs are prescribed only after determining the cause of the disease and the type of virus. Antiviral and immunomodulating drugs destroy the virus and prevent the possibility of development of the pathogen. Preparations of this category are classified according to the mechanism of action:
- Inhibitors of neuraminidase - stop the spread of infection in the body, reduce the risk of complications. Most often, patients are prescribed: Oseltamivir and Zanamivir.
- Inductors interferon - perfectly combined with other antiviral agents and enhance their effect. Promote the production of proteins in the body that suppress the infection. Effective as a preventive tool during influenza epidemics. This category includes: Cycloferon, Arbidol, Amiksin.
- The blockers of the viral protein M2 are antiviral agents of the type A. Appointed very rarely, as they have many side effects: Rimantadine, Amantadine
- In addition to the above described funds, antiviral preparations are isolated, we consider them:
- Homeopathic medicines - Aflubin, Anaferon, Arbidol, Antigrippin.
- Immunostimulating agents - Koldenflu, Imudon, Kagocel, Amiksin.
- Antitussive - Ats, Lazolvan, Kodelak, Libeksin, Sinekod.
- To relieve the inflammation of the throat and the common cold - Pharinggocept, Strepsils, Nazivin, Naftizin, Sinupret.
- Antiviral powders - Koldakt, Lemsip, Nurofen, Panadol, Tamaflu, Kodelmikst.
Any drugs aimed at treating a viral disease should be prescribed by the attending physician. Their independent use can cause serious side effects from all organs and systems, which will aggravate the course of the underlying disease.
- The most modern means of influenza
- Treatment of influenza by folk methods
- Home remedies for flu: which ones to choose?
Complications of the 2016 flu
AH1N1 or swine flu hit the world in 2009, taking with it a lot of human lives. This year, a mutated strain appeared, which also caused deaths. Its danger in rapid spread, especially in rainy and wet weather. Since this winter lives on the weather of autumn, it is this that can explain the prevailing epidemiological situation.
Danger of the virus in its complications. Flu 2016 causes non-susceptible antibiotic viral pneumonia. The disease quickly affects the lungs and vascular system, provoking puffiness, which can lead to death within 24 hours. The preconditions for secondary infection are associated with a weakened immune system. Because of the severe inflammatory process, she can not fight new pathologies.
Signs of secondary infection in cases of flu have differed depending on the general condition of the body and the bacteria that caused the pathology. But characteristic for all the symptom (appears on the 3-6th day of the disease) is the second wave of fever. It is from this point on the life of the patient depends on the effectiveness of treatment.
Consider the most common complications of influenza 2016:
- Pneumonia - the danger of pneumonia is that it appears suddenly when it seems that the disease has receded. High body temperature 39-40 ° C is accompanied by chills, pain in the chest, cough with phlegm and blood.
- Sinusitis - a prolonged inflammatory process in the nasopharynx causes severe headaches, changes in the voice. Perhaps the redness of the skin and the release of pus from the sinuses.
- Otitis - this complication occurs in both children and adults. There are severe pains in the ears with sharp lumbago, which intensify during conversation, food intake or pressure in the ear.
With timely medical care, these bacterial complications can be quickly eliminated. For treatment use a wide range of antibiotics and vitamin therapy.
More dangerous complications:
- Hypertensive pneumonia - many specialists attribute this pathology to influenza varieties, but in fact it is its consequence. Body temperature exceeds the threshold of 40 ° C, it is accompanied by neurotoxicosis, convulsions, hallucinations, nosebleeds. It is this pathology that is the main cause of deaths from influenza.
- Reye syndrome - as a rule, occurs in patients under 12 years of age. It arises because of the use during therapy of aspirin, which destroys the functioning of the liver and the central nervous system. In half the case this leads to death. The first symptoms appear on the 5th-6th day of the disease. In children, convulsions, respiratory disorders, increased drowsiness, apathy, coma begin. The only prevention of this pathology is the rejection of aspirin during the treatment of viral infections.
- Guillain-Barre syndrome is another complication that occurs most often in children. It makes itself felt 1-2 weeks after the flu. The child suffers from muscle pain, increased weakness, heart rate abnormalities and blood pressure, impaired kidney function. The main cause of the disorder is that the body produces antibodies to its cells in the nervous system that have been infected with the virus. The acute period lasts for a month, and for a full recovery it will take years. Without timely medical assistance, the child is paralyzed, and even death.
Another group of influenza complications are brain and CNS lesions. The risk group includes children, people with predisposition to brain disorders, pregnant women and elderly patients.
- Meningitis - there are severe headaches in combination with vomiting and increased tone of the neck and neck muscles. In especially severe cases, the patient throws back his head. The prognosis of the pathology depends on the results of the diagnosis, but, as a rule, unfavorable.
- Encephalitis - influenza infection affects the cerebral cortex and cerebral vessels. It develops at the acute stage of the flu, that is, in the early days. Against this background, there is a high fever, convulsions, loss of consciousness and even violations of speech function. May lead to paralysis or paresis.
- Arachnoiditis - this complication has a hidden nature, since it may appear in a couple of months, or even a year after the flu-like defeat. For its slow course, there is a growing symptomatology. Patients complain of frequent headaches, nausea, tinnitus, increased fatigue. There are epileptic seizures, reduced visual acuity and hearing. Most often, arachnoiditis is detected in differential diagnostics with oncology.
The pathologies described above are only a small part of what the flu can lead to. The reason for concern should be an unexpectedly emerging, uncharacteristic for the viral infection symptomatology. At the first signs of a pathological condition, you need to seek medical help. After a comprehensive examination, the doctor will determine the reality of the threat of complications.
How to prevent the flu this season 2015-2016?
Many preventive measures are used to prevent influenza. But special attention is paid to vaccination, which is a specific immunoprophylaxis.
To date, there are three generations of vaccines - whole-virion, split, subunit. They have in their composition viral antigens, which allows the body to develop protection. But this method has a number of drawbacks. The vaccination is done from one virus, so if another species appears during the epidemic, the vaccine will not protect and will have to be vaccinated again. Do not forget about those cases when vaccination caused a number of negative consequences. Therefore, this method is a personal choice for everyone.
Read also: Vaccination against influenza
Common methods of preventing infection:
- Strengthening the immune system - for preventive purposes it is recommended to take immunostimulating drugs and carry out tempering of the body.
- Vitamin therapy - to strengthen the protective properties of the immune system, natural vitamins are excellent, which are found in fresh vegetables, fruits and greens.
- Hygiene - after visiting the street, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and clean your nose with a solution of sea salt.
- Avoid places of congestion - during the epidemic, refuse to visit public places and transport. To prevent infection, wear a cotton-gauze dressing.
- Healthy indoor climate - regularly wet cleaning and airing. If you have a humidifier, an aroma lamp or a salt lamp, then use them, they kill germs in the room and refresh the air.
Flu 2016 is a seasonal ailment, to the appearance of which it is possible to prepare. Conducting elementary preventive measures, will protect against acute viral infection.
Mortality in influenza in 2016
According to official data, about 30 people died of influenza infection in Ukraine this year. Mortality in influenza in 2016 is many times higher than this figure for the past period. Since the beginning of the epidemic season, that is, from October 1, 2015 to today, about, cases of influenza and ARVI. About 4% of all patients were hospitalized, the majority of whom were children under 17 years of age - 75%.
The seriousness of the situation is aggravated by a sharp increase in mortality. This season prevails swine flu (Californian strain). 80% of deaths are associated with late seeking medical help (5-6 days). This indicates that many people do not perform basic preventive recommendations.
To date, it is difficult to predict the extent and lethality of the influenza epidemic. Therefore, at the first sign of the disease, you need to seek medical help. In order to prevent pathology and its complications, it is very important to carry out prevention:
- Always wash your hands - in most cases, infection occurs by contact. Malicious microorganisms can live on the surface of infected objects for several hours, or even weeks. Disinfect hands after visiting public transport and other places of congestion.
- Limit the use of alcohol and nicotine - it is the smokers and alcoholics who are most often ill with the flu and have its complications. Tobacco smoke dries the nasal passages and paralyzes the ciliated epithelium, which begins to pass the infection into the body. Passive smoking also poses a danger, as it reduces the status of the immune system.
- Drink plenty of fluids, do exercises and breathe fresh air. Regular airing of the room and walks in the fresh air temper the body. Physical loads accelerate the oxygen exchange between the circulatory system and the lungs, which contributes to the elimination of toxins.
Do not forget that the flu is one of the most dangerous infectious diseases to date. And even if the disease is not severe, it can cause serious consequences.
Fighting the influenza virus
Flu is the most common seasonal disease associated with lung damage.The cause of the disease is the influenza virus, which is characterized by a huge number of species and their characteristics.The degree of severity of the disease and the individual tolerability of it by a sick person directly depends on the state of the immune system. The greatest risk of the disease can be for young children, pregnant women and the elderly due to their vulnerability to this pathology. The seasonal flu gets a special breadth of development. The time of its activity comes in the autumn-winter period with the aggravation of the epidemiological situation in the region.
This viral disease is characterized by the fact that it has acquired the status of an annual phenomenon that mutates, complicated by new strains, so during the onset of colds it is necessary to clearly understand what is the flu and how with it fight.
Danger of influenza
Every year, a large number of people die from the flu. Most of them are children and elderly people with weakened immunity. The peculiarity of the disease is that it can cause significant harm to the human body, affecting its various organs and systems. The big threat is influenza at conception of the child, in view of the fact that spreading, he starts to develop toxic substances that adversely affect human organs. Influenza viruses destroy all the environment favorable for engraftment of the fetus and can cause a miscarriage. If the fetus nevertheless begins to develop, the heavy influence of the virus can cause a number of pathologies in the genital area, respiratory and other body systems. Therefore, the flu and conception are not compatible.In addition to the probability of getting an inflammatory process in the lungs (pneumonia), the flu is dangerous and the development of diseases such as otitis, pleurisy and bronchitis in a complicated form. Pleurisy is dangerous and insidious because it affects the shell, which covers the lungs.
Purulent inflammation of the middle ear - otitis, can cause not only inflammation in the ears, but also the neck and teeth. The flu that caused complications can cause this disease to be chronic, which is fraught with constant suppuration from the ears, frequent inflammation, and with severe form and partial loss of hearing. The greatest danger at any stage of the flu is the occurrence of an inflammatory process in the airways through which oxygen passes into the lungs. The bronchial mucosa is damaged, thereby creating conditions for the multiplication of bacteria. If the patient does all the recommendations for the flu, then the shell can recover. But in another course of circumstances, the ailment can cause serious pathological changes in the body.
Every year, doctors set a single indicator of the epidemiological threshold of influenza. Despite preventive measures against the disease, the epidemic threshold for influenza changes its indicators annually, and most of it is made up of children and the elderly.
The mechanism of development and origin of the disease is that the pathogenesis of influenza has a number of characteristics. At the beginning of the autumn-winter period, very often patients are confused with influenza and parainfluenza.These two states have a completely different picture of development. Influenza is an acute, sudden and severe disease that begins with a lung injury. Parainfluenza manifests itself gradually with headache, coughing, runny nose and changes in voice. The dominant influenza virus in the beginning of winter is seasonal, which gradually changes into a type A virus and all its subtypes.
The classification of influenza has its own peculiarity: for many years infectious diseases have divided this disease into three types: influenza A, B and C. Of all forms, type C is the safest and easiest in its clinical development: it does not cause an epidemic and is characterized as a mild respiratory disease.
The type of influenza A virus has a variety of complicated forms. The reason for this was the mutation of influenza, which leads to completely different reactions of the patient to the same type of virus. As a result of such a feature, many people who have weak immunity, very hard to tolerate the flu. The first type of illness is classified as seasonal. Sometimes, especially at the first stages of manifestation, its symptoms can be confused with catarrhal diseases, its course looks like ARVI, ARI. This type of disease begins because people are infected with the virus as a result of being permanently in stuffy, enclosed spaces with a large number of those present. This type of influenza is characterized by a number of complications, including:
- the appearance of bacterial pneumonia;
- violation of water balance in the body;
- exacerbation of concomitant diseases;
- an inflammation of the ears.
Another subtype of virus A in medical practice was called avian influenza, in which the carriers of the virus are poultry. Symptoms of this disease are very similar to colds, but can be complicated by the appearance of pneumonia and heavy breathing. As a rule, if this type of infection occurs, patients die if treatment is not started at the earliest stages.
The third type is swine flu. It is very similar in its symptoms with seasonal, but it adds high body temperature, fever, cough, bowel disorder, lung damage. Treatment procedures are appointed depending on the patient's immunity and on what signs of the disease predominate.
This type of illness requires that the treatment be carried out at home. The patient needs bed rest with the doctor's therapy. With proper and timely treatment, the patient can count on recovery.
Types of disease
It is customary to distinguish between such types of influenza as:
- highly pathogenic;
Atypical flu begins very quickly and differs from seasonal flu with serious complications. He is very cunning, because a person can get sick in any season, even in the summer. His unexpected appearance indicates that the virus is in the air constantly, which causes danger.
Highly pathogenic influenza is a disease that occurs as a result of a specific strain of the virus, for example, avian flu, and poses a huge threat to human life.
No less dangerous is rotavirus influenza, which appears as a result of rotavirus intestinal infection.
In view of the fact that the incubation period of the disease is about five days, the patient becomes a carrier of the infection from the very first days. Although after an illness the body produces a permanent immunity to this type of virus, a person can get sick twice. In the course of the disease, the intestinal mucosa is affected, and its inflammation begins.Very often people confuse their flu-like condition with common colds. But there are features of the flu and it is necessary to clearly distinguish between its symptoms and cold symptoms, since improper treatment or neglected flu can lead to poor results. With the flu, the disease begins sharply, with a cold - sluggish. Colds are characterized by low temperature.
With flu, fever for several hours passes into a severe form and gives a high body temperature.
Characteristic for the common cold is the preservation of working capacity, there are no symptoms of intoxication, there is no severe headache. With the flu, there are symptoms such as photophobia, severe headache and temporal pain, dizziness, muscle aches. During the examination of the throat, a plaque is often observed in the tongue, which may indicate a strong toxicity of the body. Cough and a feeling of heaviness in the chest for a cold are observed almost immediately. With influenza, such symptoms can occur only on the second day.
Quite often, the flu causes reddening of the eyes. Even after two or three weeks after the treatment of the disease, the patient may experience rapid fatigue, loss of strength, sleep disturbance, irritability..
Historical epidemics of influenza
In the world medical practice cases are known when, during the pandemic (epidemic) of influenza, the most dangerous were varieties of the influenza virus, leading to mass deaths. Among such it is worth noting the deadly Spanish flu, which killed more than fifty million people. This is the most terrible epidemic in the history of mankind, which has gone into oblivion and today is not a threat to the world community.
At present, there is a so-called goat flu - fever Ku, which is spread by infected animals. A person can become infected with the virus of this flu only by close contact with the animal, or by eating his meat.When infected with goat flu, a person increases the size of the spleen and liver, a rash appears on the body, the pupils turn red and the symptoms of pneumonia develop. To date, cases of infection have been reported only in the Netherlands.
Today, the once dangerous Hong Kong flu, caused by the A (H3N2) virus, is a seasonal flu and spreads to South Korea and China. Its name was received because of the main distribution in Hong Kong in 1969.
Modern infectious disease noted a few years ago the emergence of a new viral variety, which, despite a very small threat to the world, gained wide publicity and led to a world panic. This is a type of disease, like Chinese flu. After studying the molecular structure of the virus, scientists excluded him from the list of dangerous, giving him the status of Chinese seasonal flu.
One of the most important moments in the treatment of the disease is its prevention. People prone to catarrhal and viral diseases should prepare in advance to make the flu as easy as possible.
The basis of prevention includes several components that help to withstand the disease qualitatively. It is easier to survive the incidence of influenza due to a timely vaccination. To date, there are two types of vaccines: live and inactivated. Live vaccines have a group of non-contagious and weakened viruses, inactivated do not contain live viruses. Vaccines "Grippol "Microgen "Fluarix "Influvac" are very popular..
Strengthening the body in the fight against influenza plays an important role. The use of vitaminized foods in the daily diet will help replenish the supply of useful substances, strengthen the body. Particular attention should be paid to vitamin C and group B.
In a period of complicated epidemiological situation, it is better not to visit places with a large number of people. This will help protect yourself from infection. A good antiviral is washing the nose with a solution of sea salt. To prevent the drying out of the mucous membrane, it is necessary to keep the air humidified in the apartment. This will help to avoid the accumulation and penetration into the nasopharyngeal mucosa of pathogenic bacteria that cause the reproduction of a viral infection and lead to the spread of the disease with influenza. Do not forget that you have to begin to temper the body from the summer. Water procedures, cold wiping can be done at home and in winter..
Particularly dangerous is self-medication, the use of methods of traditional medicine, which can not only complicate the process of recovery, but also lead to serious consequences. Only strict adherence to medical recommendations can give a positive result in the treatment of the disease.
What are the symptoms of swine flu 2016
The epidemic of "swine flu" in 2016 so struck Russia that all previous epidemics by Russians were almost forgotten. Back in 2015, none of the specialists could tell what kind of flu would strike our country in the next winter ("bird seasonal" or "pig"), but in early 2016 it became known.
At present, Russia is the peak of the swine flu epidemic and according to the latest data, on February 1, 134 people died in the country. Since the end of January and beginning of February is the peak of the epidemic, the figures given above, unfortunately, are unfortunately not final.
The fear of catching the "swine flu" among Russians is so great that many citizens (even if they are healthy) find themselves pseudosymptoms of this disease, exaggerate any slight malaise, which, naturally, negatively affects their psychological state. They become more anxious, many experience stress. As you know, people who experience stress for a long time are more susceptible to various diseases, since immunity is reduced.
Psychologists advise not to panic, but to study the first symptoms of "swine flu" and if they appear, then go to the hospital to diagnose the disease. Remember: the time the disease is diagnosed is well treated.
What are the first symptoms of swine flu?
The most important symptom of "swine" influenza is a rise in temperature to 39 and above degrees, which can not be brought down. If this temperature is accompanied by a dry cough, nausea or vomiting, lethargy, body aches, headache, lack of appetite, do not hesitate and consult a doctor. As is known, the negative consequence of the "swine flu" is the development of pneumonia. A person simply can not breathe normally, the lungs and bronchi are affected.
If you notice the following symptoms, urgently call an ambulance
- an incessant cough, severe fever, pain in the chest;
- worsening of the general condition after recovery;
- chills, aches in the body and shortness of breath.
Remember, if your age is 18 or older than 65, you have chronic diseases and immunity problems, then you will most likely be offered hospitalization. Do not refuse it at all.
"Swine flu" is contagious and spreads among people very quickly, but if you follow some simple rules, you can minimize the infection and generally avoid it. So, first of all try not to visit places where there is a large crowd of people, if this is not possible, then be sure to wear a gauze dressing and change it every two hours. Wash your hands with soap and water as often as possible. Do not forget to do a wet cleaning daily in the room where you spend most of the time, and also to ventilate it.
What to do if you have swine flu
If you have found several of the above symptoms of the disease, then in no case do self-medication, call a doctor immediately. The fact is that although the disease itself is not fatal, a fatal outcome is possible with the development of complications.
First of all, minimize contact with people, go out on the street only if you need it and only in the gauze dressing. As often as possible, wash your hands with soap, cough and sneeze with a handkerchief (it is better to use disposable, which can later be discarded). Before arriving ambulance, keep bed rest, drink plenty of liquid, and especially freshly prepared fruit drinks.
Influenza: types of influenza, symptoms, treatment, prevention
Influenza is a viral disease transmitted by airborne droplets, affecting the respiratory system, part of the ARVI group that causes severe complications, such as pneumonia, hearing loss, vision, death.
Annually, in addition to known, new viruses with altered RNA, causing the flu, appear. Types of influenza A, B, C. Each year, there are bursts of epidemics.
It is considered that the virus of group C is the least dangerous, since it does not cause epidemics, confining itself to respiratory diseases without coughing and fever.
The virus of group A includes the following strains: H1N1, H1N2, H3N2. Previously, not known the most dangerous strain of influenza A / H1N1, or swine flu, without timely, adequate treatment can lead to death.Constant modification or mutation of the virus allows it to easily evade the immunity of the carrier (human, birds, artiodactyls). While the previously infected carrier is susceptible to influenza throughout life, that is, the host's body produces antibodies against the virus that caused the flu. The types of influenza that attacked a person or an animal will not be perceived by the immune system in the future and will pox the body again, and until the time of antibody production the disease will proceed at full speed.
Most people have innate immunity, but you can resort to vaccination.
Every year, more than 25 percent of the world's population develops seasonal The number of deaths associated with this disease ranges from , 00 to 5, 00 (mean per year - 38900).
Seasonal flu affects people every year from the beginning of September to the end of May, while there is unstable raw weather.
Symptoms of seasonal flu
Often a person can not always immediately distinguish seasonal flu from a cold, because the symptoms they have are quite similar: sputum discharge, thick discharge, nasal congestion, headache, weakness, heaviness in muscles and joints, increase temperature. Although the majority of the disease passes for seven days without any medical assistance, it is still very It is dangerous to treat the disease yourself, without the involvement of specialists, in some cases it is fraught with complications.
Complications of influenza can occur in:
- bacterial pneumonia;
- sinusitis, deafness, infectious diseases of the inner ear;
- dehydration of the body;
- inflammation of the heart muscle.
There is a certain group of people for whom any influenza virus can be very dangerous:
- elderly men aged sixty-two;
- women from sixty-seven years of age and older;
- babies and preschoolers.
Treatment of seasonal influenza is recommended to be carried out with such drugs as "Teraflu" Kodelak "Panadol" Dr. Mom. "
Prevention measures that are most effective against a viral disease: wearing an antiviral dressing, timely vaccination, the use of an antiseptic for hand disinfection, the intake of vitamins, and the use of fruits and vegetables.
Avian influenza in humans
Signs of H5N1 flu are similar to the initial symptoms of the seasonal virus: fever, cough, heaviness in the muscles. In this case, the developed complications in the form of pneumonia or breathing problems result in a lethal outcome in 70-85% of cases. The severity of the disease depends on the patient's immunity or vaccination and on how dangerous this strain of influenza is for a single organism.The largest number of infected H5N1 was recorded in Mexico, Taiwan, Japan, Canada. Currently, there are no cases recorded by medicine, when the carrier of the H5N1 virus was a human, but the bird flu continues to be a disease that can be fatal.
Prevention of a dangerous disease
There is no reliable data on the transmission of the avian influenza virus from humans to humans, but there are cases when infection occurred with direct contact with an infected bird or through surfaces contaminated with fecal feathered masses peddlers.
Infection from meat or eggs is impossible, since heat treatment kills the virus.To protect yourself from the virus, you must:
- Eat only eggs and meat after careful heat treatment for thirty minutes at 60-65 degrees;
- Wash hands with soap for at least twenty seconds, use an antiseptic in situations where a full washing is impossible.
- Cook poultry meat on a separate cutting board and in a separate bowl.
- Remove from the diet raw eggs and eggs with semi-salty (liquid) yolk.
- Avoid contact with an infected person if contact was unavoidable, should be measured temperature for three days at least twice a day, and also to monitor the appearance of symptoms in for a week.
- During a pandemic and in dealing with a patient, it is recommended to wear a mask, changing it every three hours.
- Eat fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C.
Remember! Annual vaccination against seasonal influenza does not contribute to the development of immunity against avian influenza.
Effective drugs for the treatment of the H5N1 virus
In detecting early symptoms of avian influenza, patients are prescribed broad-spectrum inhibitors, such as neuraminidases.
Usually, drugs are used for drug treatment: "Oseltamivir" Zanimivir "Relenza". If the temperature is raised to 38 degrees, it is recommended to use antipyretic, for example, paracetamol. When complicating the disease and suspected of pneumonia, antibiotics are prescribed.
In some cases, the use of "Antihypin" Analgin "Aspirin" can lead to severe consequences, for example, deafness.
H1N1 or a new flu, known as pork
For the first time, swine flu cases were reported in the United Kingdom (England) in 2009, within a few months the virus spread to two hundred countries, continents.As a rule, the symptoms of all viral infections are very similar, and the swine flu is no exception. Types of influenza, such as A and C, show the same symptoms as H1N1, but unlike it do not go so painfully and do not give complications in the form of pulmonary pneumonia.
Symptoms of the H1N1 virus
Infected with an increase in temperature to 38-40 degrees, abnormal migraine, nasal congestion in combination with a runny nose, swelling of the throat, fatigue, dry cough and shortness of breath, heaviness in the muscles and joints, signs poisoning.
The course of the disease depends on the health and immune system of the individual, however, according to the data, all Those infected with H1N1 started treatment in the first seven days of the disease, so the treatment was successful and without complications.
In case of infection with a virus in a risk group:
- women in the 1-3 trimester of pregnancy;
- elderly people at the age of sixty years;
- babies and children under seven;
- people suffering from chronic diseases: pneumonia, pyelonephritis, diabetes, congenital heart disease, cholecystitis, seasonal asthma.
If symptoms of H1N1 are found, you should consult a doctor, if there is no way to call an ambulance, you can start treatment with antiviral drugs: "Temiflu" Relenza "Zanomovir to enhance the effect of the shock dose should be taken in the first forty-eight hours.
Swine flu in children is treated mainly by means of "Temiflu" and "Relenza but they need to be applied with a special caution, since probably the manifestation of side effects, such as: heaviness in the abdomen, migraine, signs acute poisoning.
New flu can be treated with timely vaccination, it is especially important to vaccinate people at risk.
Avoid infection if you do not neglect the following measures:
- Use a disposable napkin for coughing and sneezing;
- observe the hygiene of the hands and face;
- ventilate the premises, maintain the cleanliness of household items;
- use a protective dressing;
- to carry out a timely vaccination.
Swine flu in children is usually epidemic.
The most bloody influenza virus in history
"Spaniard or Spanish flu - a virus that has claimed a huge number of lives in the history of human existence. From history it is known that in 1920-1921 (over 20 months) more than 600 million people were infected, i.е. 30 percent of the world's population. According to the number of deaths, this epidemic is among the most large-scale disasters in the history of mankind. The virus that causes such dangerous epidemics - A / 1HN1.
Symptoms of the disease:
- Gray-blue complexion.
- Infectious pneumonia.
- Coughing with blood.
- The more severe stages are accompanied by the presence of blood in the lungs, which subsequently leads to death from suffocation.
The disease can pass and is asymptomatic, but in this case the patient dies after a few days.
The Spanish flu acquired its name because of the place in which the pandemic was first recorded - in Spain.
Types of influenza, such as rotavirus infection or gastroenteritis, are in fact not considered to be influenza, because The causative agent of the disease is calicivirus, which leads to inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract rights. In general, this disease affects children under the age of seven, and in rare cases, adults. At the same time, intestinal flu in adults with a strong immune system can proceed in a latent form, full recovery in this case occurs within a week.
Usually, the virus enters the body with non-observance of personal hygiene. In people, gastric flu was called "disease of dirty hands."
Symptoms and treatment of gastric fluA few hours before the onset of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, there is a cough with phlegm, signs of sore throat, runny nose, which go away in a few days.
When the first signs of the disease appear, you should consult a doctor who prescribes medicinal enzymes to improve the digestive tract, such as "Activated charcoal filter" Smecta "Polysorb".
Quarantine for influenza
Quarantine is a measure aimed at preventing viral diseases. The term of quarantine, depending on the severity of the disease and the number of infected, is an average of one week.
Most often, quarantine for influenza at school or kindergarten is announced, this is due to the fact that the immune system in the child is not yet formed, and the body can not resist infection.
Quarantine is declared if more than 20 percent of children are absent from the school.
Before the expected epidemic, it is necessary to vaccinate adults and children (with the permission of the parents), to ventilate the premises, disinfect the work surfaces, and avoid a large crowd of people. It is important to remember, during the quarantine period for influenza or ARVI, preventive vaccinations and Mantoux reaction are prohibited.
Preventive measures for influenzaDoctors recommend to strengthen their body and immunity throughout the year with the help of hardening, physical education, proper nutrition and intake of vitamins and minerals. The most effective way is vaccination against influenza two to three months before the expected epidemic. In addition, in public places it is necessary to wear protective masks, changing them every three hours.