All kinds of cystic formations are one of the most common pathologies in women. Benign cysts may differ in structure, causes, type of development. The dermoid ovarian cyst is a complex form of pathology that will lie down.
- Dermoid cyst - what is it?
- Treatment without surgery
- Surgical treatment
- Dermoid ovarian cyst and pregnancy
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Dermoid cyst - what is it?
Mature teratoma, dermoid, dermoid cyst - a benign neoplasm in the tissues of the ovary, diagnose in every fifth woman with cysts. The tumor looks like a small round or oval seal, has smooth surfaces, can reach a diameter of 12-15 cm. Inside the neoplasm are several layers of epithelium, a mass of jelly-like consistency, there are traces of secretions of glands, hair, various tissues. Pathology develops slowly, more often the dermoid cyst of the right ovary is diagnosed.
Important!The number of degenerations of a benign neoplasm to an oncological tumor does not exceed 1%.
The causes of such a cyst are not fully understood, but it is laid in the process of fetal formation. Against the background of stress, hormonal malfunction, inflammation and abdominal trauma during the child's gestation, pathological changes in the tissues develop, which becomes the cause of neoplasms.
Code on the ICD 10 - M9084 / 0.
At the initial stages of the disease is not manifested in any way, no signs and pathological changes are observed. A tumor is most often detected accidentally with ultrasound or a gynecologist. Deterioration of health is observed when the tumor size exceeds 15 cm.
Signs of pathology:
- pain of a pulling character in the lower abdomen;
- in the abdomen there is a constant weight, there is a feeling of bursting, it can inflate, increase in volume;
- frequent urge to urinate;
- upset of the chair gives way to constipation.
Important!The presence of teratoma does not affect the hormonal background and the female cycle.
With a dermoid cyst, the disease can take place in an acute form - the temperature rises sharply, the abdominal pain becomes acute, and severe weakness appears. When you twist the legs of the tumor, there is a symptom of an acute abdomen, a high fever, severe pain that pushes in the leg.
The dermoid cyst of the left ovary is less common. The left ovary is connected to the renal artery, in which the blood pressure is low, the tumor develops slowly, the signs of the disease are less pronounced.
Tumor is easily palpable when viewed on a gynecological chair - the doctor determines the presence of a rounded mobile formation, which does not cause painful sensations.
For greater informativeness and confirmation of diagnosis, ultrasound of the pelvis should be made. The study helps determine the size of the tumor, the thickness of the teratoma capsules, the density of the inner contents. MRI and computer diagnostics are used as additional methods. If the disease occurs in acute form, the doctor takes a puncture from the vagina, appoints a laparoscopy.
Symptoms of dermoid can resemble an ectopic pregnancy, so you need to do a pregnancy test. To exclude the presence of malignant neoplasms, a mature teratoma is used to investigate tumor markers.
Treatment without surgery
The dermoid cyst does not dissolve on its own, since it contains not only liquid, but also various solid elements. Therefore, drug therapy and treatment with folk remedies is ineffective, such methods are used in rare cases.
When doctors postpone the operation:
- age up to 12 years - if the tumor does not interfere with the development and health of the girl, her size does not change, then doctors choose expectant treatment, which means regular visits to the gynecologist and ultrasound;
- the presence of infectious diseases, inflammatory processes in the organs of the reproductive system - for the first time they carry out medical treatment of the corresponding pathology, then they want an operation.
As supportive therapy, Dufaston, oral contraceptives (Jeanine, Logest) can be prescribed. It is necessary to take vitamin complexes, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial medicines.
To prevent the growth of the tumor, you can prepare a herb collection - mix 10 grams of calyx bark, flaxseed, calendula inflorescences, add 20 g of birch leaves. Brew 220 ml of boiling water 6 g of mixture, simmer for 10 minutes in a water bath. The medicine should be filtered, divided into 5-6 equal portions, and drunk during the day. Continue treatment for 3 weeks, then take a break for 10 days.
The operation to remove the dermoid ovarian cyst is considered the most effective method of treating the disease. Type of surgical intervention is chosen based on the age of the woman, the degree of development of pathology.
Types of surgical intervention:
- Removal of neoplasm without excision of intact tissue (cystectomy) - while the ovary itself does not affect, retain its integral structure and functionality. This method of treatment is effective in small tumors, when the cyst does not spread into the tissues. After 5-7 months, the scar from the operation is almost invisible, a woman can plan a pregnancy.
- Cuneiform resection - the lesion is removed along with the damaged tissues. The operation is performed to remove cysts, the size of which is within 5-7 cm, when the tumor base is twisted. Within 12 months the damaged ovary completely restores working capacity, during the rehabilitation of the follicle it produces a healthy organ.
- Removal of one or both ovaries (ovariectomy) - an operative method is indicated for women during menopause, with tumor ruptures, necrosis of ovarian tissue, twisting of the leg, accumulation of pus in the tumor cavity.
- If the disease is complicated by inflammatory processes, there is a torsion of the neoplasm, then the operation is urgent.
Most often the operation is performed with the help of laparoscopy - the doctor makes several small incisions into which the camera and instruments are inserted. The duration of the operation is within an hour, after 4-6 days a woman can be discharged from the hospital, further treatment will be carried out on an outpatient basis. The excised tissues are necessarily sent for histological examination.
Treatment after surgery includes hormonal therapy, for complete recovery the body will take 6-12 months. Negative effects after surgery are rare, the most common are endometriosis, impairment of the hormonal system, infertility. Relapses occur with incomplete removal of tumor capsules.
Important!After removal of the dermoid neoplasm, the childbearing, menstrual and sexual function is rarely disturbed.
Dermoid ovarian cyst and pregnancy
Hormonal changes during pregnancy can cause intense teratoma growth. Is the ovarian cyst removed? If education does not worsen the work of nearby organs, then the treatment is postponed for the postnatal period. When a dermoid ovarian cyst is diagnosed, the entire pregnancy will be at the special control of the gynecologist.
The teratoma itself does not affect the development of the fetus, the woman's well-being does not deteriorate. But the growing uterus displaces the internal organs, which can lead to the infringement of the cyst - the leg of the tumor is twisted, a rupture of the tumor may occur. Therefore, doctors often recommend future mothers to remove the tumor laparoscopically after 4 months of pregnancy.
Important!After the removal of the tumor, pregnancy can be planned no earlier than six months later.
Dermoid ovarian cyst is a benign neoplasm that is formed at the stage of intrauterine development. An effective method of treatment is the removal of the tumor. Otherwise, any sharp movement can lead to a twisting of the leg, against a backdrop of suppuration of the contents of the cyst can degenerate into a malignant tumor.