Antibiotics for colds and flu: what's better for adults
People with medical education know for certain that antibiotics for colds and flu are ineffective, and they are not cheap and harmful.
And doctors in polyclinics and those who have just finished medical high school know it.
Nevertheless, antibiotics are prescribed for colds, and some patients recommend these medications for the prevention of infections.
With a common cold without antibiotics, it's best to get by. The patient must ensure:
- bed rest;
- abundant drinking;
- balanced nutrition with a high content of vitamins and minerals in food;
- if necessary, effective antipyretic tablets or injections;
- inhalation and rinsing of the nose;
- rubbing and compresses (only in the absence of temperature).
Perhaps, these procedures can treat cold treatment and limit it. But some patients persistently ask their doctor for a good antibiotic or a cheaper analogue.
It happens even worse, a sick person, in view of the fact that he does not have time to visit a polyclinic, begins self-treatment. The benefits of pharmacies in large cities today are every 200 meters. Such open access to medicines, as in Russia, is not found in any civilized state.
But for the sake of justice it should be noted that many pharmacies began to dispense antibiotics of a wide range of actions only on the prescription of a doctor. However, if you wish, you can always pity the pharmacist, referring to a severe illness or find a drugstore, which is much more important than the health of people.
Therefore, antibiotics for colds can be purchased without a prescription.
When should you take antibiotics for ARI and the flu?
In most cases, the common cold has a viral etiology, and viral infections are not treated with antibiotics. Tablets and injections of a wide spectrum of action are prescribed only in those cases when an attenuated organism has an infection that can not be defeated without antibacterial drugs. Such an infection can develop:
- in the nasal cavity;
- in the mouth;
- in bronchi and trachea;
- in the lungs.
In this situation, antibiotics for flu and cold are needed.Laboratory methods of research, according to which you can judge the need to take antibacterial drugs, are not always appointed. Often polyclinics save sputum and urine on crops, explaining their policy by the fact that it is too expensive.
Exceptions are swabs taken from the nose and throat with sore throat on Lefler's wand (causative agent of diphtheria), selective crops urine in diseases of the urinary tract and selective seeding of the detachable tonsils, which are taken for chronic tonsillitis.
Patients undergoing treatment in the hospital are much more likely to obtain laboratory confirmation of microbial infection. Changes in the clinical blood test are indirect signs of bacterial inflammation. Having received the results of the analysis, the doctor can proceed from the following indicators:
- number of leukocytes;
- an increase in segmented and stab-shaped leukocytes (a shift of the leukocyte formula to the left).
And yet antibiotics for colds doctors appoint very often. Here is an example of this, which is taken from the results of testing one child's medical institution. 420 outpatient cards of small patients from 1 to 3 years were analyzed. In 80% of cases, doctors diagnosed children with ARI, ARVI; acute bronchitis - 16%; otitis - 3%; pneumonia and other infections - 1%.
With pneumonia and bronchitis antibacterial therapy was prescribed in 100% of cases, but in 80% it was prescribed for both acute respiratory infections and inflammation of the upper respiratory tract.
And this despite the fact that the vast majority of doctors understand perfectly well that it is unacceptable to use antibiotics without infectious complications.
Why do doctors still prescribe antibiotics against influenza and colds? This happens for a number of reasons:
- reinsurance due to the early age of children;
- administrative settings;
- preventive measures to reduce complications;
- lack of desire to visit assets.
How can complications be determined without tests?
A doctor can determine by eye that an infection has become a cold:
- the color of the discharge from the nose, ears, eyes, bronchi and pharynx from transparent changes to dull yellow or poisonous-green;
- when a bacterial infection is attached, a second rise in temperature is usually observed, this is typical for pneumonia;
- the urine of the patient becomes cloudy, a sediment can be observed in it;
- in fecal masses there is pus, mucus or blood.
Complications that may occur after ARI are determined by the signs below.
- The situation is this: a person had an acute respiratory viral infection or a cold and was already recovering, when suddenly the temperature jumped to 39, increased cough, there was pain in the chest and shortness of breath - all these signs signal that there is a high probability of development pneumonia.
- If you suspect a sore throat and diphtheria, the temperature rises, throat pains intensify, tonsils appear on the tonsils, and lymph nodes increase on the neck.
- With an average otitis fluid is released from the ear, when pressing on the tragus in the ear there is a strong pain.
- Symptoms of sinusitis are manifested in this way: the patient has completely lost his sense of smell; In the forehead area there are severe pains that are worse when the head is tilted; the voice becomes nasal.
What antibiotics to drink for a cold?
Many patients ask the therapist this question. Antibiotics for colds should be selected, based on the following factors:
- localization of infection;
- the patient's age (for adults and children, his list of drugs);
- individual drug tolerance;
- the state of the immune system.
Sometimes broad-spectrum antibiotics are recommended for use against uncomplicated acute respiratory diseases.
Against some diseases of the blood: aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis.
With obvious signs of weakened immunity:
- a subfebrile condition;
- catarrhal and viral diseases more than five times a year;
- chronic inflammatory and fungal infections;
- congenital pathologies of the immune system;
- oncological diseases.
Children up to 6 months:
- against vaginal rickets;
- against lack of weight;
- against various malformations.
Taking antibiotics for colds is recommended for the following indications:
- Bacterial angina requires treatment with macrolides or penicillins.
- Purulent lymphadenitis is treated with a wide spectrum of action.
- Acute bronchitis, exacerbation of its chronic form, and laryngotracheitis bronchoectatic disease will require the appointment of macrolides. But it's better to do a chest X-ray, which will exclude pneumonia.
- With an acute average otitis, the doctor after the otoscopy makes a choice between cephalosporins and macrolides.
Azithromycin is an antibiotic for colds and fluAzithromycin (another name Azimed) is an antibacterial preparation with a wide spectrum of action. The active substance of the drug is directed against protein synthesis of sensitive microorganisms. Azithromycin is rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Peak action of the drug occurs two to three hours after admission.
Azithromycin is rapidly distributed in biological fluids and tissues. Before you start taking pills it is better to test for the sensitivity of the microflora that provoked the disease. Adult Azithromycin should be taken once a day for an hour before meals or three hours after it.
- In case of infections of the respiratory tract, skin and soft tissues, a single dose of 500 mg is given on the first day of admission, and for three days the patient takes Azithromycin 250 mg per day.
- Against acute urinary tract infections, the patient should once take three tablets of Azithromycin once.
- Against the initial stage of Lyme disease, one tablet is also administered once.
- With gastric infections caused by Helicobacter pylori, for three days the patient should take a single dose of three to four tablets.
The form of the drug - tablets (capsules) of 6 pieces per package (blister).
Other antimicrobial agents
If the patient does not have an allergic reaction to penicillin, antibiotics for influenza can be prescribed from a semi-synthetic penicillin series (Amoxicillin, Solutab, Flemoxin). In the presence of severe resistant infections, doctors prefer "protected penicillins that is, those that consist of Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid, here is their list:
With angina this treatment is best.
Names of preparations cephalosporin series:
- Ixim Lupine.
- Cefuroxime axetil.
In mycoplasmal, chlamydial pneumonia or infectious diseases of ENT organs, the following medicines are prescribed:
In addition, it is possible to use antiviral drugs that are inexpensive but effective in treatment, which suggests an integrated approach to influenza therapy.
The problem is that most pharmaceutical companies in the pursuit of profit now and then throw out into the wide sales network more and more new antibacterial agents. But most of these drugs for the time being could be in stock.
Antibiotics, influenza, cold - what conclusions can be drawn?
So, from all that has been said above, we can conclude that antibiotics should be prescribed only for bacterial infection. Influenza and the common cold are 90% viral, so with these diseases, taking medications antibacterial group not only will not bring benefits, but can provoke a number of side effects, eg:
- decreased immune response;
- oppression of kidney and liver function;
- imbalance of intestinal microflora;
- allergic reactions.
The administration of these drugs for the prevention of viral-bacterial infections is unacceptable. To take aggressive medications, which are antibiotics, is possible only in extreme cases, when there are all the indications.
The main criteria for the effectiveness of treatment with antibacterial drugs include the following changes:
- relief of the general condition of the patient;
- decreased body temperature;
- disappearance of symptoms of the disease.
If this does not happen, then the medicine needs to be replaced by another one. To determine the effectiveness of the drug from the beginning of treatment should take three days. Uncontrolled use of antibacterial medicines leads to a disruption of the resistance of microorganisms.
In other words, the human body begins to get used to antibiotics and each time demand more aggressive medications. In this case, the patient will have to prescribe not one drug, but two or even three.
All you need to know about antibiotics is in the video in this article.
Whether to drink antibiotics at cold at children or adults?
Everyone who received a diploma from any medical institute is firmly aware and remember that antibiotics for colds, ARVI and flu do not help. This is remembered by doctors in polyclinics, practicing doctors in hospitals. However, antibiotics are prescribed and not infrequently simply prophylactically. Because when you go to a doctor at the hospital, the patient needs treatment.
And in cases with colds, acute respiratory viral infection, in addition to all known rules - abundant drinking, bed rest, vitaminized, limited (diet) meals, medicines and folk methods for gargling, nasal washing, inhalations, rubbing with warming ointments - nothing else is needed, that's all the treatment for colds and is limited. But no, a person expects medicines from the doctor, often just begging for an antibiotic.
Worse, the patient can independently start taking any antibiotic according to his experience or someone's advice. Appealing to a doctor today takes a long time, and medicines are very easy to acquire. No civilized country has such open access to medicines, as in Russia. Fortunately, today most antibiotics dispense prescription antibiotics, but there is always a chance get the drug without a prescription (having mercilessly dispensed a pharmacist or by choosing a pharmacy that values its turnover).
As for the treatment of a cold in a child, here the situation is most often overshadowed by the fact that the pediatrician is simply reinsured, prescribes an effective, good, "child" antibiotic for colds for prevention, in order to avoid possible complications. If the child begins to drink abundantly, moisturize, ventilate the room, at high temperature give antipyretics for children, apply all known means for colds and folk methods - the body must cope with the majority of respiratory viral infections.
And why, then, did the pediatrician prescribe antibiotics?Because complications are possible. Yes, the risk of complications in preschool children is very high. Today, not every mother can boast of strong immunity and the general good health of her child. And the doctor in this case is guilty, did not notice, did not check, did not appoint. Fear of accusations of incompetence, inattention, danger of prosecution pushes pediatricians to prescribe an antibiotic for children with colds as prevention.
It should be remembered that a cold in 90% of cases is of viral origin, and viruses do not cure antibiotics.
Only in cases when the body failed to cope with the virus and complications arose, bacterial infection, localized in the oral cavity, nose, bronchi or lungs - only in this case are shown antibiotics.
Can I understand by analysis that antibiotics are needed?
Laboratory tests that confirm the bacterial nature of the infection are not always performed:
- Since sputum cultures, urine for today is quite expensive for polyclinics and they are trying to save on them.
- Exceptions are smears from the pharynx and nose with angina to the stick of Lefler (causative agent of diphtheria) and selective crops of detachable tonsils with chronic tonsillitis or urine in pathologies of urinary tract ways.
- More chances to get bacteriological confirmation of microbial infection in hospital patients.
- Indirect signs of bacterial inflammation will be changes in the clinical blood test. Here the physician can orient on the rise of ESR, the increase in the number of leukocytes and the shift of the leukocyte formula to the left (increase of stab and segmented leukocytes).
How to understand by feeling that there were complications?
By eye, the attachment of bacteria can be determined by:
- Changing the color of the separated nose, pharynx, ear, eyes, bronchi - from transparent it becomes cloudy, yellow or green.
- Against the background of bacterial infection, as a rule, there is a repeated rise in temperature (for example, with pneumonia, which complicated ARVI).
- With bacterial inflammation in the urinary system, urine will most likely become turbid and a visible sediment will appear in it.
- When lesions of the intestinal microbes in the feces appear mucus, pus or blood.
Understand that there are complications of acute respiratory viral infection is possible on the following grounds:
- If after the onset of acute respiratory infections or cold after the improvement on day 5-6, the temperature rises again to 38-39C, deterioration of well-being, cough increases, dyspnea or chest pain occurs during breathing and coughing - high risk pneumonia.
- Increases in sore throat at high temperature or there are raids on tonsils, cervical lymph nodes increase - it is necessary to exclude angina or diphtheria.
- There is pain in the ear, which increases with pressure on the tragus, or from the ear flowed - the average otitis is likely.
- Against the backdrop of a cold there was a pronounced nasal voice, headaches in the forehead or face that intensify when leaning forward or lying down, completely lost the sense of smell - there are signs of inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.
Many ask the question what antibiotics to drink with a cold, what antibiotic is better for a cold? If complications arise, the choice of antibiotic depends on:
- localization of complications
- age of the child or adult
- anamnesis of the patient
- drug tolerance
- and of course, resistance to antibiotics in the country where the disease occurred.
The appointment should be made only by the attending physician.
When antibiotics are not indicated for colds or uncomplicated ARVI
- Muco-purulent rhinitis (rhinitis), lasting less than 10-14 days
- Viral conjunctivitis
- Viral tonsillitis
- Tracheitis, bronchitis (in some cases at high temperature and acute bronchitis antibacterial drugs are necessary)
- Attachment of herpetic infection (herpes on the lips)
- Laryngitis in children (treatment)
When it is possible to use antibiotics for uncomplicated cases
- At the expressed signs of the lowered immunity - constant subfebrile temperature, more than 5 r / year catarrhal and viral diseases, chronic fungal and inflammatory diseases, HIV, any oncological diseases or congenital disorders immunity
- In a child under 6 months of age - rickets in infants (symptoms, treatment), various malformations, with a lack of weight
- Against the background of some blood diseases (agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia).
Indications for prescribing antibiotics are
- Bacterial angina (with simultaneous exclusion of diphtheria by taking swabs from the throat and nose) requires treatment with penicillins or macrolides.
- Purulent lymphadenitis requires broad-spectrum antibiotics, consultation of a surgeon, sometimes a hematologist.
- Laryngotracheitis or acute bronchitis or exacerbation of chronic bronchitis or bronchiectasis will require macrolides (Macropen), in a number of cases, an x-ray of the chest to exclude pneumonia.
- Acute otitis media - the choice between macrolides and cephalosporins is performed by an ENT doctor after otoscopy.
- Pneumonia (see p. the first signs of pneumonia, treatment of pneumonia in a child) - treatment with semisynthetic penicillins after radiologic confirmation of the diagnosis with mandatory control of the effectiveness of the drug and ray-controlled.
- Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis, sinusitis, etmoiditis) - the diagnosis is established by X-ray and characteristic clinical signs. Treatment is conducted by an otolaryngologist (see p. signs of sinusitis in adults).
Here is an example of a study conducted on the basis of data from a single pediatric clinic, when analyzing medical history data and outpatient cards 420 children 1-3 years old. In 89% of cases, children were registered with ORVI and ARI, 16% with acute bronchitis, 3% with otitis and only 1% with pneumonia and other infections.
And in80% of casesOnly with inflammation of the upper respiratory tract with acute respiratory illness and Orvi antibiotics were prescribed, with pneumonia and bronchitis in 100% of cases. Most doctors theoretically know about the inadmissibility of using antibacterial drugs for a cold or a viral infection, but for a number of reasons:
- administrative settings
- early age of children
- preventive measures to reduce complications
- reluctance to go for assets
they are still prescribed, sometimes in short 5-day courses and with a decrease in dose, which is highly undesirable. Also, the spectrum of pathogens in children was not considered. In 85-90% of cases it is viruses, and among bacterial agents it is 40% pneumococcus, in 15% hemophilic rod, 10% fungi and staphylococcus, less often atypical pathogens - chlamydia and mycoplasma.
With the development of complications against the background of the virus, only according to the doctor's prescription, according to the severity of the disease, the age, the patient's anamnesis, such antibiotics are prescribed:
- Penicillin series - in the absence of allergic reactions to penicillins, semi-synthetic penicillins can be used (Flemoxin solutab, Amoxicillin). In severe resistant infections among penicillin preparations, doctors prefer "Protected penicillins" (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid), Amoxiclav, Ecoclave, Augmentin, Flemoclav Solutab. This is the first-line drugs in angina.
- Cephalosporin series - Cefixim (Suprax, Pansef, Iksim Lupine), Cefuroxime aksetil (Zinacef, Supero, Aksetin, Zinnat), etc.
- Macrolides - are usually prescribed for chlamydial, mycoplasmal pneumonia or infections of the ENT organs - Azithromycin (Sumamed, Zetamax, Zitrolide, Chemomycin, Z-factor, Azitrox), Macropen is the drug of choice for bronchitis.
- Fluoroquinolones - are prescribed in cases of intolerance to other antibiotics, as well as with the resistance of bacteria to drugs penicillin series - Levofloxacin (Tavanic, Floracid, Haileflox, Glevo, Flexi), Moxifloxacin (Avelox, Plevilox, Moximak). The fluoroquinolones are completely banned for use in children, since the skeleton is not yet formed, and also because it is preparations "of a reserve that can be useful to a person when he grows up, in the treatment of infections with a drug stability.
In general, the problem of choosing an antibiotic for today is a task for the doctor, which he must decide in such a way as to maximally help the patient in the present and not harm in the future. The problem is complicated by the fact that in the pursuit of today's profits, farmkampanii absolutely do not take into account the seriousness of the increasing stability causative agents of diseases to antibiotics and throw out in a wide network those antibacterial novelties that could be for the time being in reserve.
If your doctor has prescribed an antibacterial drug, you should read 11 rules. How to drink antibiotics correctly.
- Antibiotics are indicated for bacterial infections, and the common cold in 80-90% has a viral origin, therefore their reception is not only senseless, but also harmful.
- Antibiotics have serious side effects, such as inhibition of liver and kidney function, allergic reactions, they reduce immunity, cause imbalance of intestinal microflora and mucous membranes in organism.
- The use of antibiotics as a prophylaxis for complications of viral-bacterial infections is unacceptable. The task of the child's parents in time to see a doctor, and the therapist or pediatrician in time to discover the possible deterioration of well-being of the child or adult and only in this case to accept "heavy artillery" in the form of antibiotics.
- The main criterion for the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy is a decrease in body temperature to 37-38 ° C, relief of the general condition, in the absence of this antibiotic should be replaced by another. The effectiveness of the antibiotic is estimated within 72 hours and only after this the preparation changes.
- Frequent and uncontrolled use of antibiotics leads to the development of resistance of microorganisms, and each time a person will require more aggressive drugs, often the simultaneous use of immediately 2 or more antibacterial means.
What antibiotic to drink from flu and cold?
Antibiotics are designed to fight bacteria and therefore their use should be limited to the treatment and prevention of various bacterial infections. Infection of the infection is different and therefore the treatment of each case of the disease must come from a real picture of the disease. The culprits of most cases of colds, for example, are viruses, against which antibiotics are absolutely powerless, but as the disease progresses to a viral infection is attached bacterial and therefore in this case antibiotics can be used (in the event that the high temperature is kept more than 3 days). Amoxicillin, Erythromycin and many others. other antibiotics can help with the attachment of a bacterial infection. You Arbidol need to start drinking, use more liquid.
From the flu, no appointment, because it is not effective!
For cold, drink water and paracetamol!
Arbidol, remantadine, their doctor immediately prescribes, although it does not seem to be an antibiotic. In the pharmacy should advise.
arbidol-excellent helps, axolin ointment - nose smear
Hungry for 2 days drink only water and everything will pass
Try Amoxicillin for 0.5 4 times a day. The first dose is 1.0 - shock.
If there is a homeopathic pharmacy there ask, there are directly miracle means, if there are no such pharmacies, then in usual buy Aflubin and according to the instructions actively, every 4 hours, drink drops.
And in the nose of IRS19.
If you can not do without antibiotics, then I would choose sumamed. New, modern, all collateral are kept to a minimum, and the course only three days. Action prolonged. Even my homeopathic doctor, although categorically against antibiotics, says that if you still have to take it, it's better that you do not have sumamed.
The best antibiotic is a plant, for example Po Arco, without side effects and cluttering up the body with all sorts of rubbish.
Antibiotics from viruses do not help, only from their complications. If you recently fell ill-Ingavirin according to the scheme in the instructions
Antibiotics for viruses do not work.
It is necessary to drink antiviral drugs, doctors probably will laugh but fiz solution intravenously drip on 500 ml every day of day 4 not bad helps.
Well and so with antibiotics Ciproflox, Augmentin quite good ...
Big girls do not cry
no antibiotics for flu and cold are not prescribed. these diseases cause viruses, against which antibiotics are powerless.
Biseptol is generally a quiet horror. he has not been appointed for 100 years.
I join the answer above, antibiotics against viruses are useless, they will not lower the temperature, nor will the symptoms be removed. I drink Amiksin in such cases, quickly puts on his feet, there are no side effects.
Antibiotics for colds: what you need to know. What antibiotics can be prescribed for colds?
After the doctors started using various antibiotics, the medicine entered a new stage of development. These drugs have unique properties, destroy or slow down the development of dangerous microorganisms, which allows them to be widely used in the treatment of infectious diseases.
Pharmacists are creating more and more medicines, and today it is very difficult to find a family in the medicine cabinet which would not have antibiotics. Some people, getting sick with the flu or ARI, manage to prescribe drugs themselves, causing irreparable harm to health. Can I take antibiotics for a cold? At what diseases it is better to refrain from their use?
Rules and patterns
You should know that antibiotics are not as harmless as it seems at first glance. These drugs can be prescribed only by a doctor, and they must be taken with great care. Especially when antibiotics are used for colds for children. When using any medications, you should carefully read the instructions and be sure to pay attention to the period of their validity.
If you are going to take antibiotics, you should know that they help only with bacterial infections. They will not bring any effect for influenza and ARVI, as these diseases occur in the body due to the vital activity of viruses. Against them antibiotics are powerless.
At high temperature or inflammatory processes, these drugs are also not prescribed. They are not antipyretic agents, so there will be no effect on their intake in case of high temperature.
Antibiotics for colds
Today, many drugs are advertised on TV, but this does not mean that during illness you can assign them yourself. With the question of what antibiotics to take with a cold, you need to go to the doctor, and not to the best friend or mother.
After a complete examination and obtaining the results of the tests, the specialist can prescribe the following drugs:
- macrolides ("Clarithromycin" Azithromycin "Roxithromycin");
- penicillins ("Augmentin" Ampioxus "Amoxiclav");
- cephalosporins ("Cefiprom" Cefotaxime "Cefazolin").
Antibiotics for colds are prescribed according to the type of disease, its severity and other characteristics. When identifying side effects or allergic reactions, the drug can be replaced with another.
Some features of diseases
When a cold (or ARI) occurs, the body is attacked by viruses. There is stuffy nose, throat pershin and blushes, it overcomes the cold. During this period, immunity actively fights disease, there is a temperature and chills.
The best means for treatment at this time are not antibiotics. For flu and cold at the initial stage, antiviral drugs are used. The most common of these are Anaferon, Laferon, Reaferon, drops and candles. To medicines containing natural plant components, include "Proteflazid "Immunoflazid."
When are antibiotics prescribed?
Usually within a week the patient's condition improves. If this did not happen, on the basis of the tests the doctor concludes that a bacterial infection has joined the disease. In this case, antibiotics for colds are prescribed.
This is very important, as the patient's condition can become complicated, and the flu or ARI acquires a dangerous form - it can be pneumonia, acute bronchitis or purulent angina. Only strong antibiotics help the body cope with the attack of bacteria.
In this case it is very important to choose the right drugs. What kind? Antibiotics for colds are appointed, based on bacteriological examination of the patient's sputum. The laboratory, after making an analysis, provides results on the resistance of bacteria to certain drugs.
Having determined the most suitable antibiotics, the doctor appoints them to the patient. If this medicine has an allergy or has side effects, another drug is prescribed. You should know that you can not abruptly cancel the antibiotic. For a cold, an adult person needs to use it for another two to three days. Even after a visible improvement in the general state of therapy, discontinuation is not recommended.
Antibiotics for colds for children
All parents should know that drugs of this category are prescribed to babies in extreme cases and only by an expert. Do not use drugs without consulting a doctor!
The best cold remedies for a child are plenty of drink, febrifuge (in the case of temperatures above 38 degrees) and antiviral syrups.
If the baby's condition does not improve, stronger medications are prescribed. A good antibiotic for colds is "Amoxiclav." It is used for bacterial infection in the respiratory tract. With pneumonia, the drug "Avelox" can be prescribed, with pleura - "Supraks with fungal atypical pneumonia, "Hemomycin" helps. However, remember that the medicine can be prescribed only by the doctor after reviewing the results of the tests!
Strictly contraindicated for children!
Many antibiotics for colds can cause side effects in the child's fledgling body. This can be a decrease in appetite, unstable stool, abdominal pain, nausea, anxiety.
Therefore, there are a number of antibiotics that are not prescribed to children, their use can cause a terrible harm to the health of the child. These include:
- aminoglycosides and tetracyclines (contraindicated to children under 8 years old).
Uncontrolled use of these drugs can lead to liver damage, malfunctions in the nervous system, dysbiosis. Some drugs have an irreparable effect on the hearing and can even lead to complete deafness of the child. Cases of toxic shock, and even a lethal outcome, are not uncommon. Therefore, in any case, do not self-medicate and always seek help from a specialist.
Effective drugs with bronchitis
In ARI, you must observe bed rest, take a sufficient amount of warm liquid and try to do everything to make the disease recede. In the event of a deterioration in the general condition, an adult can be given appropriate potent drugs. The name of antibiotics for colds (in the case of bronchitis) will tell the doctor. Often appointed:
Complication in the form of a sore throat
It is very bad if the patient's condition does not improve within four to six days. Even worse, if the disease takes a dangerous form in the form of purulent sore throat.
The name of antibiotics, if taken cold, in that case will be different. The following preparations are used:
There are many more effective medicines that successfully kill bacteria in the human body. However, they are written out only by a doctor and are taken strictly on the recommendation.
In what cases are antibiotics necessary?
With a mild form of acute respiratory disease, laryngitis, rhinitis, viral tonsillitis, these drugs are not prescribed. Antibiotics for flu and cold can be used only in extreme cases, if there is often recurring diseases, prolonged temperature, as well as patients with oncological diseases or HIV infection.
Strongly active drugs are indicated if:
- Purulent complications of ARI;
- acute otitis media;
- sinusitis of severe form, flowing for more than 14 days;
- streptococcal angina;
How to take antibiotics?
For adults, medicines of this group are mainly produced in tablets or capsules, for children - in the form of syrup. The drug is taken internally. Antibiotics for colds should not be combined, preferring monotherapy (the use of a single drug).
Take the medicine in such a way that its maximum concentration falls on the focus of the infection. For example, with the disease of the upper respiratory tract, the antibiotic is administered in the form of aerosols or drops. So the components of the medicine instantly manifest their effect and quickly have an effect.
The effectiveness of the drug is judged by reducing the body temperature within 36-48 hours after its administration. If this does not happen, use another antibiotic. It is not recommended to combine the drug with antipyretics. In severe cases, immediate hospitalization is recommended.
The dosage of the antibiotic depends on the causative agent of the disease, the form of the disease, its severity and the age of the patient. In the case of prescribing the child, its weight is taken into account. With antibiotic therapy of a newborn, the gestation period is taken into account: for a child born on time, and a premature baby, the doses of the drug will be different.
The regimen is strictly observed throughout the course of treatment. Usually, the drug is recommended to take at least 5-10 days. Continue treatment more than the due date is strictly prohibited, as well as self-abolish the drug.
A good antibiotic for colds is able to cope with bacteria in a few days. However, it should be remembered that when combined therapy is not prescribed drugs with a similar composition and action. This can lead to toxic damage to the liver.
Possible side effects
The discharged antibiotic for a cold to an adult person will certainly hurt less than a child. However, this potent drug can cause a number of side effects, such as rash, nausea, vomiting, headaches and other unpleasant symptoms.
If the antibiotic used uncontrolled, it can cause such reactions of the body:
- allergic rashes;
- intestinal dysbiosis;
- resistance of bacteria to a certain type of drugs.
Most often, allergic manifestations occur after taking antibiotics of the penicillin group. If there is a rash or other unpleasant sensations after taking the medicine, it is better to interrupt his reception and see a doctor.
Interaction with other drugs
Combine several medications is undesirable, especially if one of them is an antibiotic. If you are taking any medicine, be sure to tell your doctor. He will choose the best treatment option. But in any case, the antibiotic is taken at a different time and preferably without combining it with other medicines.
Special instructions should be given to women taking hormonal contraceptives. When interacting with certain antibiotics, their effect decreases, which can lead to unwanted pregnancy.
Also, any medications are not recommended for use during lactation. Antibiotics are able to penetrate into the mother's milk and have a negative impact on the baby, causing dysbiosis or allergic rashes. Categorically, you should not take any medication while you are pregnant.
Our body is populated with many useful bacteria that perform a number of necessary functions. Remember that during the antibiotic intake they are killed simultaneously with harmful microorganisms. Most potent drugs destroy the normal microflora of the intestine, stomach and other organs, provoking the appearance of the fungus. Therefore, very often after taking antibiotics, candidiasis can develop.
You should also think about if you are allergic reactions. Maybe it's because of the uncontrolled use of antibiotics? People who use these drugs for a long time are very likely to develop allergies to any stimulus: dust, smells, flowering plants, detergents.
The matter is that antibiotics weaken our immunity, not allowing it to cope independently with the infection that has arisen. Without natural stimulation, normal body protection deteriorates, and it reacts painfully to any stimulus.
Do not take long one kind of drug. Pathogenic microorganisms can quickly form a stable strain against this drug, and getting rid of them in the future will not be easy.
Now you know what antibiotics are, when it is advisable to use them. Free sale of these drugs in the pharmacy can not be a guide to action. Any medicines can be prescribed only by a specialist, and what antibiotic is better for a cold, your doctor will decide.
We recognize: broad-spectrum antibiotics for colds
Antibiotics appeared about a hundred years ago. Now antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action have huge popularity - at cold such means are simply irreplaceable.
The modern world can not be imagined without antibiotics. They can be bought at any pharmacy and even without a prescription from a doctor. Antibiotics of a wide spectrum - the present "rod-zashchalochka" at any diseases as they start to struggle quickly with infection in an organism and operate in a complex.
Antibiotics for ARI in most cases - just a necessary thing. In certain course of the disease, the body can not fully cope with the infection, the disease can be prolonged and cause complications. It is at this time that the main defenders of the human being come to the rescue from bacteria and viruses - antibiotics.
Why do colds require the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics?The answer is simple: the disease and its complications can cause dozens and even hundreds of different bacteria and viruses. They can be different: some cause a cough, others act on the mucous throat, others lead to otitis and bronchitis. Antibiotics of a wide spectrum act on an organism in a complex way and help to cope simultaneously with several pathogens.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed in the case of:
- when there is no time to accurately determine the causative agent of the disease, and the disease progresses (especially in young children);
- if narrow-spectrum antibiotics are not able to cope with the infection;
- if the organism is attacked by several types of bacteria or secondary infection occurred against a background of low immunity;
- as a prophylaxis after surgery or taking strong drugs, undergoing radiation or chemotherapy.
In what cases does the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for colds
Antibiotics are not the only cure for colds. Their use should be approved by a doctor. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is not necessary in the following cases:
- if the common cold does not progress, enough conventional treatment;
- if the patient does not have a significant temperature increase, and there is only rhinitis and a slight cough;
- with minor sore throats that do not cause a strong cough;
- if the sputum is clear or slightly cloudy when coughing;
- with mild forms of herpes, bronchitis, etc.
- if in the body in the period of illness there are purulent foci;
- with angina;
- if the heat of the body lasts for several days, it is difficult to bring down the usual antipyretic;
- when acute otitis occurs;
- with influenza and pneumonia;
- with inflammation of the nasal sinuses;
- with a strong dry cough;
- with a wet cough, if the sputum gets yellow, green; in it there are clots of pus or blood.
From antibiotics, too, should not be discarded, if the blood test increases the ESR, increases the number of white blood cells, there is a protein in the urine. Antibiotics are necessary for small and weak children, and for people who have a weakened body and often suffer from cold diseases.
Antibiotics of a wide spectrum for catarrhal diseasesIn modern pharmacology there is a huge amount of wide-spectrum antibiotics that are used to treat colds.
One of the first scientists to open antibiotics penicillin line. Despite the fact that now there are many new-generation drugs, penicillins steadily secured the first place in the treatment of ARI in adults. They are actively fighting the most famous and common infectious agents: streptococci, listeria and staphylococci. Most often, when the disease is prescribed amoxicillin. This antibiotic has been used for more than 40 years in the treatment of acute respiratory infections, ARVI and influenza. It has a complex effect on the respiratory system, the throat. Therefore, the drug is prescribed for the treatment of mild forms of bronchitis, tonsillitis and influenza. Also, amoxicillin is needed if the disease is complicated by a urinary tract infection.
If the infection continues to exist, the illness is delayed and complicated by a purulent abscess, sepsis, then ticarcillin and piperacillin can come to the rescue. These are stronger drugs. They can also affect bacteria and microbes that cause pneumonia and cold complications such as kidney inflammation (pyelonephritis), meningitis, and others.
To take antibiotics of a wide spectrum with caution is necessary for small children and pregnant women.These categories of people are quite difficult to cope with the infection on their own, but at the same time, antibiotics cause them harm. Children and expectant mothers should never be self-medicated and use antibiotics at their own discretion. There are a number of light drugs that will help him cope with the infection.
Future mothers can safely take the following broad-spectrum antibiotics:
- Ampicillin, Oxacillin (group of penicillins);
- Cefazolin (group of cephalosporins);
- Erythromycin (macrolide group).
With caution take any medications for pregnant women in early pregnancy, when laying the main organs of the child. Refusal to take antibiotics for a serious illness can threaten the transition of the infection to the fetus and even miscarriage.
Why not use antibiotics of a wide range
Many doctors are slow to resort to the action of antibiotics for colds, if their use is not justified. After all, in the name of the drugs it is laid down that they "kill life". With uncontrolled and excessive use of antibiotics, drugs begin to attack not only pathogens and viruses, but also microorganisms that are necessary for a person to normal life activity.
Frequent use of antibiotics leads to dysbacteriosis. Along with pathogenic organisms, drugs destroy the microflora of certain internal organs. This does not lead to new diseases, but rather complicates life and reduces the working capacity of the body. Antibiotics can cause some gastric disorders, and after treatment of acute respiratory viral infections with antibiotics, most women have candidiasis or thrush. Therefore, doctors recommend during the treatment to use lactic acid products (yogurts and kefir) with a high content of beneficial bacteria..
Frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics for colds can cause a sustained reaction to them of viruses and bacteria. Scientists have proved that bacteria and viruses can mutate even in the human body. With a long use of a certain antibiotic, they develop a kind of immunity to it.
Unfortunately, antibiotics not only protect the human body, but also destroy its immune system. Therefore, after the course of drugs, vitamins must be drunk and it is desirable to use natural immunomodulators more often (fruits, berries, vegetables and legumes).
The immune system protects the body not only from viruses and bacteria, but also from the action of common allergens. Scientists have found out that over the past 50 years, the number of allergies, especially children, has increased several dozen times. This is associated with frequent use of antibiotics and low performance of the human immune system..
It should be remembered that modern life without antibiotics is very dangerous, with the help of all the catarrhal diseases. But such medications are not a panacea, so use them with caution.