Displacement of the articular surfaces of the bones of the shin and foot due to rupture of ligaments in medicine is called dislocation of the ankle joint. Sometimes the joint and ligaments are shifted and broken not completely, doctors call this state - subluxation. In certain cases, the joint is displaced without tearing ligament, this condition is considered a lesion without injury to the joint bag.
- Signs and Symptoms
- How to determine the dislocation
- First aid
- Treatment with folk remedies
- Different types of complications
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Dislocation of the ankle - a very frequent phenomenon. In the ICD-10, this problem is indicated by the number S93.0. The elderly are at greater risk of injury, since their ligamentous apparatus is no longer as strong as in youth. Athletes are also very familiar with joint injuries, because their occupation is associated with active physical activity. Women are prone to ankle injury not less, it's all about the shoes. Weak sex prefers high heels, at times increasing the risk of tucking a leg. None of the people is immune from injury, occupation, sex and age are not related to the accident.
Signs and Symptoms
Depending on the severity of the dislocation, it is divided into 3 degrees, each of them has its own symptoms:
- At the first stage, the ligament ruptures, resulting in swelling and swelling. Of the symptoms: pain, discomfort, while the motor functions are not violated.
- The next form is characterized by a slight tear, swelling, which spreads to the entire surface of the foot. If you move your foot, the pain will be strong enough, it will not work, although the functions of the movement will remain in working order.
- At the third stage, the integrity of the joint is completely broken. A sharp pain pierces the leg during palpation, and when you try to get on your feet. The tumor extends to the entire foot, including the sole.
An examination of the patient in the hospital gives a sufficient amount of data on the extent of the injury, for the correct diagnosis, but not in all cases. How to distinguish a fracture from a dislocation? People with suspected ankle damage are assigned an ankle in the ankle joint in different projections. This procedure will show with certainty the nature of the injury, with an ankle fracture or it is an ankle injury, and also will determine the specific type of the resulting injury, for example, stretching or dislocation, or this dislocated displacement.
How to determine the dislocation
To understand whether there is a fracture in the victim or not, you need to know how to determine this. To do this, remember that the dislocation never changes the length and shape of the limb. Fracture or dislocation? To begin with, we will understand the symptoms of a fracture:
- acute pain;
- marked deformation of the joint;
- pathological mobility;
- strong swelling.
Important! With a fracture, the symptoms are slightly different, you can not move your foot, the more you step on it or try to go.
What to do with a dislocation? Immediately begin to provide first aid before the delivery of the victim to the hospital. From the time for which the patient will be assisted, his recovery time after treatment and the degree of subsequent motor function of the joint largely depends.
First aid in case of dislocation:
- It is necessary to lift the leg to the elevation and fix it in this position, the outflow of blood will reduce swelling;
- attach ice to the site of the bruise, it will also relieve swelling and pain, to do this, fill the ice with a bottle and wrap it in a thin towel so as not to overcool the joint, keep the damage on the spot for about 10 minutes with interruptions, even better if it is dry ice, so as it has a lower temperature;
- if the victim has severe pain, you need to give him an anesthetic;
- impose on the ankle joint an 8-band dressing;
- call an ambulance, or gently deliver the victim to the hospital department.
Contraindications for trauma:
- It is strictly forbidden to try to correct the joint by itself, this can lead to a complete rupture of the ligaments;
- when injured in frost, on the street, it is forbidden to remove shoes from the victim.
Is treatment at home possible? First, the treatment of the house is to provide first aid, so the leg should be immobilized, put ice on, and call an ambulance, or take the patient away.
Important! In the case when the patient was prescribed treatment under stationary conditions, gypsum is sometimes applied to the damaged area.
An anti-inflammatory drug is prescribed, such as: Movalis, Ibuprofen. It is mandatory to use crutches when walking, so as not to put a strain on the injured leg.
When an easy injury is received, the traumatologist may allow the house to be treated. The pain syndrome in this case can be reduced by applying ice for 10 minutes, or taking medications such as Ibuprofen. The patient is also prescribed absolute rest and rest.
To treat the first stages of dislocation, one should adhere to a special scheme:
- After getting a bruise, you need to make cold compresses. This is the most suitable and easy way to relieve swelling and pain. For such purposes, you can use special packages that are sold in pharmacies, they cool the damaged place remarkably.
- The damaged joint is immobilized with tight bandages and elastic bandage.
- Trying to stand on foot is strictly prohibited, only rest.
- A few days after the dislocation, be sure to use ointments - for example, Bom Benge, which has anti-inflammatory properties.
- In case there is a hemorrhage in the subcutaneous tissue, you can use the ointment of Troxevasin.
- Also in the treatment it is very useful to add paraffin applications and a weak massage.
The duration of such treatment is at least 2 weeks. After this period of time, you can already give a weak load on the foot and remove the bandage. But, it is allowed to do only after the pain completely disappears.
The second and third stages of the dislocation are characterized by a more serious displacement of the joint and require its correction in the shortest possible time, it is strictly forbidden to do this on their own. In the hospital, the affected area is anaesthetized with injections of anesthetics and is injected.
The second degree is treated by applying gypsum, after which it must be worn for a minimum of 14 days. Physiotherapy, massage procedures and exercise therapy are prescribed. Complete recovery of the patient occurs in 3-4 weeks.
Treatment of the third degree is done in this way:
- Apply a gypsum covering the whole surface of the foot from the fingers to the upper part of the shin.
- Procedures of physiotherapy.
- A little exercise.
With proper treatment, the victim will be able to return to a normal lifestyle within a month.
Treatment with folk remedies
For treatment, you need to know a few simple but effective ways. Folk remedies:
- Tincture of the flowers of calendula, tansy and celandine will be an excellent option. All the ingredients must be mixed, poured with water and infused for 30 minutes, then moistened with a bandage in the obtained tincture and applied to the injured area. Once the fabric has dried, you need to change the compress.
- For the next method you will need a ground laundry soap. It is necessary to mix ammonia and camphor (powder) with it. Pour the lamp oil and white turpentine, mix, the result should be an ointment. Such ointments should be applied to a bruise when dislocated.
- Grated 4 cloves garlic on a grater, mixed with vinegar. Insist for about a week. The product is perfect for rubbing into the bruised area.
- A mixture of half a spoonful of salt and a 9% vinegar of 150 ml. Soak a bandage or a napkin in this solution and apply it to a sore spot. It can with edema, and will reduce the risk of hematoma.
Different types of complications
Complications can result in serious consequences. The most dangerous is the instability of the joint. Eliminate the problem only by surgical intervention. At this time, patients complain of severe weakness and instability in the joint.
Another frequent complication is relapse of the dislocation. Often, the victims complain of severe pain, severe swelling of the joint and very frequent turning of the legs during movement, which provokes a surge of pain.
Important! A rare case is the trauma of the lateral ligaments due to subluxation of the tendon of the fibular muscle, this relapse requires surgical intervention.
Usually the prognosis after the dislocation of the foot is quite favorable, the risk of the above complications is minimal with proper treatment.
It happens that the dislocation provokes the appearance of a habitual dislocation, but this happens with those patients who already had a predisposition in the form of hereditary weakness of the connective tissue.
Depending on the severity of the injury, the recovery period takes from a couple of weeks to several months, sometimes people need to wear special shoes and bandages, some will have to walk with a cane for some time.