What complications of bronchial asthma in adults and children

Asthma is a common respiratory disease. Her attacks can attack at any time. Completely get rid of the disease is difficult, but it is important to maintain a stable state of health and avoid complications.

Content:
  • Degrees of exacerbations
  • Types of consequences of bronchial asthma
  • Disturbances from the respiratory organs
  • Disorders of the nervous system
  • How asthma affects the heart
  • Effects on the digestive system
  • Prevention
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Degrees of exacerbations

Bronchial asthma is considered a chronic disease. It is associated with hypersensitivity to various environmental allergens. The attack happens because of a spasm in the bronchi and excessive release of mucus in the airways. Oxygen does not enter the lungs in sufficient quantities.

The disease is widespread in children, a predisposition to it is often hereditary. Atopic (or non-infectious-allergic) asthma affects 10% of babies.

By severity, three forms of asthma are isolated: mild, moderate and severe. In the absence of therapy, the mild degree develops into an average. In severe cases, the disease can be complicated by asthmatic status. This is an extremely dangerous phenomenon that requires urgent hospitalization. It happens when therapy no longer yields any results. If the hospital does not manage to stop the attack, the patient must be connected to life support devices (artificial ventilation).

Asthma of mild degree is common in adults and children. Sometimes its appearance provokes extrapulmonary pathologies (polyposis, eczema, urticaria). Symptoms are irregular, occur no more than once a week. After the first attack, the manifestations of the disease do not make themselves felt for a long time. Exacerbation of mild degree does not affect the physical activity of a person.

Symptoms of exacerbation of 1 degree:

  • rapid heartbeat, arrhythmia;
  • rough breathing resembling snoring;
  • the inability to draw air full of chest;
  • when exhaled, a sound is produced with a whistle;
  • mild dizziness.

Pulmonary complications are provoked by allergens of the environment. The initial degree of disease can be easily suppressed if possible stimuli are identified and eliminated. These include domestic dust, pet hair, flowering seasonal plants, cigarette smoke, a sharp smell of perfume. It is especially important to protect the child from these factors, because the children's body is hypersensitive.

Symptoms of exacerbation of the 2nd degree:

  • frequent shortness of breath, difficulty breathing;
  • pallor of the skin, blue lips;
  • Attacks from 4 to 10 times a month;
  • bad patency of the bronchi, wet cough;
  • change in the shape of the chest;
  • during listening, dry rales in the lungs and a characteristic deaf sound are revealed when tapping the chest;
  • Exacerbations occur at night.

Important! For asthma of moderate severity characterized by acute manifestations with the threat of suffocation of a person! Attacks can occur at any time. It is necessary to control the course of the disease, not to allow complications. To do this, use regular therapy. Assign preventive drugs, inhalers, vitamins. During nighttime exacerbations, drugs that extend the bronchi - bronchodilator are saved.

Symptoms of exacerbation of the 3rd degree:

  • loud whistling as you exhale;
  • high blood pressure;
  • impaired breathing, severe wheezing in the lungs;
  • forced posture during an attack in which breathing is facilitated;
  • panic state, irritability, aggression;
  • the appearance of cold sweat on the forehead and temples.

Important! At a bronchial asthma of 3 degrees the risk of an asthmatic status is raised or increased. Attacks happen often. To prevent them is almost impossible, this is the most characteristic symptom. Pulmonary rales are so strong that they can be heard even at a great distance. They treat the disease with inhaled and tablet corticosteroids, as well as long-acting bronchodilators.

Types of consequences of bronchial asthma

Well, if the disease was found in time, and measures are taken to eliminate her symptoms. But at an early stage, it is not always possible to establish an accurate diagnosis. Young children have allergies, bronchitis, which increase the risk of developing bronchial asthma. The elderly are weakened by immunity, they have more complications. When the disease is started, the consequences for the whole organism are serious. They are a consequence of constant oxygen starvation (hypoxia).

These are the complications:

  • disruption of the brain;
  • chronic pathology of the respiratory tract;
  • diseases of the cardiovascular system;
  • problems of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • malfunctions in the nervous system.

The most common complications are pneumothorax (severe pain due to rupture of lung tissue), acute respiratory failure (lung hypoxia), pneumonia (asthma provokes the attachment of secondary infections).

Disturbances from the respiratory organs

Pathology of the respiratory tract after bronchial asthma is divided into two groups - acute and chronic. Briefly about acute complications: they include atelectasis (a fall of the lung) and pneumomediastinums (air entry into the mediastinum). They are characterized by severe shortness of breath, acute pain in the chest, weakness, loss of strength.

Chronic disorders in bronchial asthma occur more often. People experience discomfort due to a shortness of breath. A few other complications are pulmonary emphysema and pneumosclerosis. They provoke respiratory failure, general weakness, decreased ability to work, lethargy.

There is an unpleasant, pressing cough with shortness of breath. The skin loses its elasticity, becomes pale blue. Due to insufficient intake of oxygen, constant headaches develop. Also, most asthmatics face chronic bronchitis and tonsillitis.

The intake of oxygen is vital, especially in pregnancy. The full development of the fetus is possible only with the coordinated work of all organs and systems of the future mother. An asthmatic woman carrying a child should be under the supervision of her gynecologist.

Disorders of the nervous system

Acute attacks of bronchial asthma adversely affect the work of the nervous system and important parts of the brain. Correct work of the body is provided by blood circulation, through which oxygen enters all vital organs of a person. When an attack occurs, his admission is significantly reduced. Because of this, the perception of what is happening is broken, memory suffers. A person can show unreasonable aggression, irritability. There is fatigue, apathy.

Serious violation of the nervous system - bettolepsy, which occurs due to malfunctions in the blood supply to the brain. At the height of the cough, there is a strong dizziness, down to loss of consciousness, convulsions. In such cases, hormone therapy or adrenoblockers are prescribed.

How asthma affects the heart

The heart suffers with every asthmatic attack. High pressure inside the chest increases the load on the myocardium. Lack of oxygen leads to a sharp rise in blood pressure, causes arrhythmia. Following hypertension, the vessels of the lungs narrow. They do not cope well with blood circulation, this increases the risk of heart failure, even a heart attack.

Patients often have symptoms that resemble angina pectoris. The heart accelerates its rhythm, the person experiences a strong heaviness in the chest, burning. During particularly severe asthmatic attacks, cardiac arrest may occur.

Effects on the digestive system

Sensitive Gastrointestinal System is always the first to respond to changes in the body. The work of the intestines and stomach is affected not only by high chest pressure, but also by the regular intake of hormonal drugs. They destroy the normal microflora, causing gastritis or ulcers. Patients have problems with a stool, there may be pain in defecation,

Long-term use of the above medicines entails the appearance of internal bleeding. This is extremely dangerous, threatening a fatal outcome. If possible, systemic hormone therapy (tablets) is best not to use, it is desirable to dispense inhalation drugs.

Prevention

The main goal of prevention is to prevent attacks of bronchial asthma, the transfer of the disease to a state of remission. It is necessary to protect not only the respiratory system, but also the body as a whole. All methods are available, do not require large expenditure of effort.

How to protect yourself from complications:

  • quit smoking;
  • carry out hardening procedures;
  • drink vitamin complexes in the winter-spring season;
  • avoid hypothermia;
  • get rid of dangerous allergens;
  • time to treat respiratory diseases of the respiratory system;
  • humidify the air indoors, regularly ventilate;
  • more often to be out in the fresh air.

It is quite possible to live with asthma, modern medicine creates all conditions for this. And the key to success will be timely treatment of the first symptoms, in order to avoid further complications.

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