Lectures on the topic of combating corruption are called upon to maximally and comprehensively inform the largest number of citizens about the problem of corruption in Russia with a view to its final eradication from our society. For without the proper upbringing of the younger generation of youth and the reorientation of ideological attitudes in the thinking of mature people, the fertile soil of a corruption swamp and bribery will continue to flourish unchecked.
Therefore, for adults - civil servants, workers of organizations, young people - children, schoolchildren, students and students in modern educational institutions, it is important to develop a clear anti-corruption attitude in their thinking, feelings, way of life. Of course, it's hard to be honest, and even an altruist, when you face corruption offenses on a daily basis and see on the television screen about the exposures of officials and the monstrous amounts of bribes and other "kickbacks".But, I digress, as they say - closer to the point. ..
Lecture 1. Concept and general characterization of corruption
Overview of two lectures
Corruption crime today can be called traditionaland a fairly common type of crime, existing not only in our state, but also in many other civilized countries of the world. In support of this, it should be noted the opinion of well-known scientists who define the corruption of
as total, noting Russia as the most corrupt state in the world, where corruption has become almost the main way of economic collapse of the country, the destruction of the system of state power and administration, the disruption of market reforms and criminal deformation of sense of justicesociety
- ( the author refers to the books: Gumilev LN From Russia to Russia, M., 1992. P. 25, Machiavelli N. Sovereign, M., 1990. S. 678; Thomas Hobbes. Works in 2 volumesT. 2. - M., 1965, p.192 - 304; Dictionary of Foreign Words, Moscow, 1954, p. 369).
Like any complex social phenomenon, corruption does not have a single canonical definition. There are many definitions of corruption.
Corruption( from the Latin word corrumpere - to spoil) is the use by an official of his powers and entrusted rights for personal gain, contrary to the established law and rules.
Perhaps the most concise( and accurate) of them: "abuse of public power for private gain"( Joseph Senturia).
Next, the author gives interesting historical information about the roots of the origin of corruption and its theoretical concepts in science.
Separately examined and analyzed the causes and hypotheses of the emergence of corruption.
The full text of this interesting lecture and the following in pdf format can be downloaded for free by clicking on this link:
Lecture 2. Types of corruption
Depending on the field of activity, the following types of corruption should be distinguished:
- Corruptionin the sphere of public administration.
- Parliamentary corruption.
- Corruption in enterprises.
Corruption in the sphere of public administration takes place because it is possible for a civil servant( official) to manage state resources and make decisions not in the interests of the state and society, but on the basis of his own selfish motivations.
Depending on the hierarchical position of civil servants, corruption can be subdivided into apex and grass-roots. The first involves politicians, higher and secondary officials and is associated with decisions that have a high price( laws, state orders, changes in ownership, etc.).The second is common at the middle and lower levels and is associated with a constant, routine interaction of officials and citizens( fines, registrations, etc.).
Often both parties interested in the corruption deal belong to one state organization. For example, when an official gives a bribe to his boss for the fact that the latter covers corrupt acts of the bribe-taker, this is also corruption, which is usually called "vertical."It, as a rule, acts as a bridge between the top and bottom corruption. This is especially dangerous, since it indicates the transition of corruption from the stage of disparate acts to the stage of rooting organized forms.
Most experts studying corruption, refer to it and purchase votes during elections.
The voter has a resource under the Constitution, which is called "power authority".These powers he delegates to elected persons through a specific type of decision - voting. The voter must take this decision on the basis of transferring his powers to someone who, in his opinion, can represent his interests, which is a publicly recognized norm. In case of buying votes, the voter and the candidate enter into a transaction, as a result of which the voter, by violating the above norm, receives money or other benefits, the candidate, violating the electoral legislation, hopes to acquire an imperious resource. It is clear that this is not the only type of corruption in politics.
Finally, we mention corruption in non-governmental organizations, the availability of which is recognized by specialists. An employee of an organization( commercial or public) can also dispose of resources that do not belong to him: he also has the opportunity to illegally enrich himself with actions that violate the interests of the organization, in favor of the second party benefiting from it. An obvious example from Russian life is loans received for bribes in commercial banks for projects whose purpose is to withdraw money and disappear. So, UFSNP for St. Petersburg in the course of work on criminal cases under art.1622 Part 2 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR established that the company "Varash", which received as prepayment for goods 200 million rubles from various commercial structures, and ExtroService LLP, which received a loan from the Baltic Bank in the amount of 300 million rubles, converted the said funds, they were sent abroad for a fake contract and ceased their activities. Director of the firm "Varash" was killed [8, p.165].
Source: The full text of this lecture and the previous one in pdf format you can download for free by clicking on this link:
Lecture 1a. A short introduction to the topic "What is corruption?"
TransPeranzi Azerbaijan December 18, 2000
Despite the fact that the lecture was written 17 years ago, the following issues are considered here( more interesting in some detail):
- Question 1: The concept of corruption in criminal, administrative law and ethics
- Question 2: Damage, caused by corruption
- Question 3: Features of corruption as a social phenomenon
- ( a) It is naive to think that corruption can be completely eradicated, because it is based on one of the basic human vices - greed.
- ( b) Paradoxically, a bureaucratic mechanism is an objective basis for corruption, but it is impossible to fight corruption without it.
- ( c) The goal is not to ensure universal disinterestedness, but to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the management system in both the public and non-public sectors.
- ( d) This goal is achievable only if all the forces of society are united and assisted in the implementation of the state program to combat corruption.
- ( d) The fight against corruption should be systemic in character, and not turn into one-time noisy companies like "witch hunts".
- Issue 4: The main directions of combating corruption
- Improving the transparency of government structures. Transparency is understood as the free access of citizens to information about government decisions, to varying degrees affecting the whole society.
- Implementing the principles of reasonable or effective management. These measures are feasible through institutional reforms and the streamlining of legislation.
- Raising the level of business ethics of government officials and ensuring their social protection.
- Raising the level of legal literacy of the population and fostering public rejection of the facts of corruption.
- Increase in the level of activity of civil society.
- Strengthening the independence of the judiciary and the media.
- Question 5: Arguments in favor of corruption
Some researchers believe that corruption, especially in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, carries a positive grain. In this case, the following argument is advanced. Corruption acts as a "lubrication mechanism" that compensates for the shortcomings of the state machinery associated with the low level of professionalism of state officials, their lack of initiative, the lack of legislation that allows ambiguous interpretation of laws and regulations, and thus leaving many issues to the discretion of an official withone side and, finally, the low level of economic and legal education of the private sector, who prefer to pay bribes, rather than deal within all the subtleties of passing through bureaucratic procedures. Corruption is also linked to an excessive tax burden, evasion of which by means of bribes helps the private sector to survive at the stage of becoming. The problem is that corruption really has its advantages, but only in the short term, and in the long term it damages not only the society as a whole, but also the business itself, because it makes it dependent on the lawlessness of officials. The desire to reduce the tax burden and increase the salary of an official, together with the restriction of arbitrarily accepted decisions and the restriction of direct contact between tax officials and taxpayers, are more effective measures to combat bribery in the tax sphere.
- Question 6: Combating Corruption in the International Aspect
Successes in the fight against corruption are impressive, especially considering that 10 years ago such interventions in business were impossible.10 years ago in the World Bank it was forbidden to pronounce the word "corruption".Today, the World Bank is one of the leaders of the world anti-corruption movement. An example is also the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, which in 1999 adopted the Convention on Combating Bribery of Officials of Foreign States in International Business Transactions. The Convention presupposes a broad and clear definition of bribery, establishes standards and criteria for the implementation of the relevant laws, and provides mechanisms for mutual legal assistance. Another organization actively working in this direction is Transparency International - an international non-governmental non-profit organization with about 80 national branches and departments in the process of forming around the world.
You can get acquainted with the full version of this lecture in pdf format here:
Lecture "Anti-Corruption Measures"
This lecture, in its 23-page presentation, has the following plan:
- Features of countermeasurescorruption.
- Legal regulation of combating corruption manifestations.
- Carrying out anti-corruption expertise of regulatory legal acts.
- Formation of units for the prevention of corruption and other offenses of the personnel service in federal state bodies.
- Anticorruption requirements for state and municipal employees.
At the end of the lecture questions for self-control are given:
- What conditions influence the formation of anti-corruption policy?
- What are the main tasks to be taken when developing anti-corruption measures.
- Why only legal measures can not prevent corruption?
- What are the main functions of the units for the prevention of corruption and other offenses?
- What are the main anti-corruption requirements for civil servants.
The full text of this lecture "On anti-corruption measures" in docx format can be( now the page is deleted!).
Lecture series on "Fighting Corruption as a System of Public Relations"
A series of four lectures is presented on 32 pages, including the following topics:
- The concept of corruption, its definition and interpretation in various documents and regulations.
* Has a curious own thesaurus about corruption, corruption factor, corruption behavior, subjects of corruption offenses, anti-corruption policy, the concepts of kickback, bribery, state and its standard services.
- Types of corruption, its sources, methods for their evaluation.
- The impact of corruption on the state of the state economy.
* This topic includes:
The most difficult is the land issue in Russia: Land and property relations( the Russian program of 1992 Privatization as the main source of corruption when changing the social system).
Raiding as a phenomenon of a corrupt economy.
There is also a thesaurus that discloses concepts: raider, raider intelligence, raiding, greenmail, unfriendly absorption, market economy, speculative economy, state acquisition
- Influence of corruption on the development of the social sphere of the state.
* Includes section: household corruption.
Theis fully available with this lecture. :
Lecture "Legal basis for countering corruption. Anticorruption policy in education "
* Includes lecture plan, list of recommended reading literature:
I. Regulatory legal acts on corruption - federal and regional legislation of the Russian Federation, Presidential Decree of the Russian Federation, Orders of the Government of the Russian Federation.
- UNESCO Report "Corruption Schools and Corrupt Universities: What Can Be Done?"( Prepared by the International Institute for Educational Planning, 2007).
- Report "Russia and Corruption: Who is Who"( Prepared by the Regional Public Foundation "Informatics for Democracy"( INDEM Foundation), Moscow 1998).
- Transparency International Submission Prepared for the Russian State Duma on the draft Federal anti-corruption law.- Berlin, 1994.
- Information message DEB of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia "About results of carrying out of special operatively-preventive actions on counteraction of corruption in an education sphere in 2009г.
- Reports of the All-Russian Society for the Protection of the Rights of Educational Consumers( OZPPOU) on the results of work on social projects "Abiturient-2008"( 2008), "Higher education is your right"( 2009-2010), "Healthy generation - healthy Russia"( 2009-2010), etc.
- Materials of round tables, seminars, meetings of expert advisory councils in the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, the Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, the Public Chamber of Russia, Rostrud, etc.
For the full text of the lecture on the legal framework for combating corruption,
Lecture of the Regional Prosecutor "On Counteracting Corruption in Russia"
Addressed to the prosecutors of cities and districts of the Samara Region within the framework of coordination of the work on legal education of the population in electronic form for use in practical activitiesA model lecture on the explanation of anti-corruption legislation.
I propose to use these explanations of legislation, as lecture materials in the organization of legal education activities, in cooperation with relevant public organizations, if necessary, I propose that some of the lecture material be used to prepare publications with explanations of legislation that must be posted on websites of local governments,network publications, used in the presentations on television and radio stations.
Senior Assistant to the Region Attorney for Legal Support, Junior Counselor of Justice AS Russkikh.
Lecture on combating corruption in the health system
The lecture was developed by specialists of the Ministry of Health of the Samara region.
Training of specialists with medical education for the main anti-corruption aspects in professional activity is conditioned by the objective necessity, and corresponding assignments of the leadership of the Samara region:
For the first time in recent decades, the anti-corruption legislation has been developing intensively. In recent years, the most important regulatory legal acts have been adopted:
- Federal Law No. 273-FZ of 25.12.2008 "On Combating Corruption",
- National anti-corruption plans approved by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation,
- . It should be noted from the normative legal acts of the Samara regiondepartmental target program "Counteraction to corruption in the sphere of activity of the Ministry of Health of the Samara Region" for 2013 - 2015, approved by the order of the Ministry of Health of Samara Oblastand from 15.04.2013 № 9-n.
The lecture contains interesting information-report on the involvement of 25 medical workers for corruption crimes: 21 for bribery, 2 for fraud, 1 for abuse of authority, 2 for misappropriation or embezzlement using his official position,for service forgery( simultaneously with receiving a bribe).
Negative examples from the practice of medical institutions in the Samara region:
- The patient asked for an X-ray study. There were no medical indications. The X-ray laboratory took pictures, the patient was handed over directly to the X-ray lab a 2,500 rubles. The patient wrote a complaint. The institution established that the X-ray lab assistant had not taken any measures to formalize the contract for rendering medical services, did not transfer money to the cashier, but appropriated it. The situation was considered at the commission on counteracting corruption in the institution. The money was returned to the patient. The X-ray laborator is brought to disciplinary responsibility.
- The patient applied to law enforcement agencies for the actions of a dentist who takes illegal fees for dental treatment without formalizing a contract for the provision of paid services. Operative-investigative measures were carried out, an operative experiment was conducted-without offering free treatment under the MHI policy, the doctor told the patient that the treatment would cost 2,000 rubles. After treatment, the patient transferred the money by investing in an outpatient card. In the institution of criminal proceedings was refused, due to the fact that the dentist did not have administrative functions. However, the investigator found a violation of the procedure for providing paid services - the employer is recommended to apply disciplinary punishment to the doctor. Since this doctor on the treatment of another citizen and was previously convicted of a similar collection of money - the employer decided to dismiss the doctor at the initiative of the employer for repeated failure to perform his duties. Next was the trial of a labor dispute, but as a result, the employee left the staff of the institution.
- The patient was explained to the patient by the medical worker that the transaction( payable from the compulsory medical insurance funds) is paid, the payment was registered as a charitable contribution. The patient complained. Territorial body of Roszdravnadzor in the Samara region established the fact of compulsion of the patient to charity for the medical services rendered.
The full text of this lecture is available here