In medical practice, various pharmaceutical antipyretic agents and preparations are widely used at high temperature for children and adults. But antipyretic drugs and pills can not be used without thinking, they should be prescribed for the child - a pediatrician, and for an adult person - a doctor-therapist.
Heat-reducing agents are reasonably used at high temperatures for colds, viral and inflammatory diseases, when necessary: long-term elevated body temperature, and antibiotic and antiviral treatment is already under way.
Usually, after the appointment of treatment of the underlying disease - the cause of high temperature, it quickly returns to normal.
Antipyretic drugs for adults: tablets
Antipyretic agents include derivatives of salicylic acid( sodium salicylate, acetylsalicylic acid, salicylamide, methyl salicylate), pyrazolone( Antipyrine, Amidopyrine, Analgin, Butadion), Aniline( phenacetin, Paracetamol).
To enhance their pharmacological activity, antipyretics are often combined among themselves, as well as with caffeine. The following combinations are most commonly used:
- Analginum + Amidopyrin + Caffeine;
- Ascofen + Acetylsalicylic acid + Fenacetin + Caffeine;
- Citramone + Acetylsalicylic acid + Fenacetin + Caffeine + cocoa + citric acid + sugar;
- Pirafen( Amidopyrin + phenacetin).
In Hungary, a combined preparation of Reopyrin( Butadione + Amidopyrine) is produced;in Bulgaria - Piranal( Amidopirin + Analgin);Sedalgin( Codeine + Caffeine + Fenacetin + Acetylsalicylic acid + Phenobarbital).
Antipyretic effects of these substances are observed if they are introduced into the body with fever;at normal body temperature, it does not decrease. Antipyretic effect due to the selective effect of drugs on the centers of heat regulation, with an increase in heat transfer, which is associated with the expansion of skin vessels, increased secretion of sweat glands, increased respiration.
With prolonged use of antipyretics, complications are possible: when using salicylic acid derivatives - nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, irritation, and sometimes ulceration of the gastric mucosa;derivatives of Pyrazolone can inhibit leukopoiesis and cause agranulocytosis, derivatives of Aniline - the formation of methemoglobin. As a rule, all complications occur after withdrawal of drugs.
Consider the main characteristics of some antipyretic drugs used in everyday pediatric practice.
Antipyretic drugs for children
Here you will find out why some medications and pills used by an adult can not be given to a child.
Most antipyretic drugs belong to the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( NSAIDs).The mechanism of action of these drugs is based on blocking the release of substances( prostaglandins) that affect the hypothalamus( the brain region responsible for the regulation of body temperature), followed by a rise in body temperature.
As a result, NSAIDs have not only an antipyretic effect, but also some anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect( the latter depend on the chemical structure of the drug).
Since the beginning of the 60s, an active study of the side effects of NSAIDs has begun. As a result, some drugs, such as Analgin( metamizole), Amidopyrine, Butadion, Fenacetin, Indomethacin, have been completely excluded from the list of drugs that can be used to treat temperature in children.
A side effect of Analgin, Butadione and Amidopyrin may be oppression of hematopoiesis and agranulocytosis( a critical decrease in the number of cells in the immune system in the blood), in which the lethality exceeds 50%.
Fenacetin and indomethacin can cause serious impairment of kidney function and are therefore completely contraindicated in children under 14 years of age.
With the famous aspirin, too, not everything is "smooth".The main side effects of it( lesions of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract, aspirin asthma, etc.) develop with prolonged use, but in some cases it is dangerous even for short-term use of aspirin to reduce the temperature. For example, after taking aspirin against a background of an acute viral illness( influenza, parainfluenza, chicken pox), children can experience serious liver damage( Reye syndrome).
Therefore, aspirin is contraindicated in children under 12 years of age and with suspected viral disease.
Child antipyretic agent
To reduce temperature in children, it is recommended to use Paracetamol ( Acetomifene).
This drug has a selective blocking effect on the center of thermoregulation of the brain and is practically devoid of peripheral action.
The use of paracetamol is limited in the case of chronic liver disease and intolerance( allergy) of the drug.
Side effects of paracetamol( especially liver damage) may occur if the drug is overdosed.
The dosage regimen of Paracetamol and Aspirin should be fully agreed with the attending physician.
Analgin and Amidopyrin should not be used to reduce temperature in children, except for special indications.
Once again we will draw your attention to the fact that the use of any antipyretic drug and its dosage regimen should be coordinated with the attending physician. If the drug is ineffective or if adverse reactions occur( a sharp deterioration in the general condition of the patient), you should immediately consult a doctor.
Paracetamol Dosage Scheme for Children's Temperature Decrease
|Age or Weight||Tablet 100 mg||Tablet 500 mg|
|From 2 months.up to 1 year( 6-9 kg)||1||1/4|
|From 1 to 3 years( 10-14 kg)||1||1/4|
|3 to 5 years( 15-19 kg)||1 + 1/2||1/ 2|
Additional methods for reducing temperature in a child and adult
If other methods of temperature reduction are not effective, a so-called "lytic mixture" for intramuscular injections is recommended.
Prepare it as follows: take 0.1 ml( for 1 year of life) 50% solution of Analgin, 1% solution of Diphenhydramine and 0.5% solution of Novocaine. The resulting mixture is administered intramuscularly in one syringe( sometimes without novocaine).Before the introduction of the drug, it is important to make sure that the patient does not have hypersensitivity( hypersensitivity) to Novokain.
In case of possible hypersensitivity, a Novocain test is carried out: a few drops of Novocain are instilled in the conjunctival sac( the lower eyelid is slightly withdrawn at the same time).If, five minutes after instillation of novocaine, there are no signs of strong irritation of the conjunctiva( acute itching and redness, a sensation of "sand" in the eye), then the lytic mixture can be administered without fear.
Hyperthermia: red and white
"Red" and "white" hyperthermia are two types of temperature increase.
With red hyperthermia, the patient's skin is hot, full-blooded( red).This means that there is an expansion of the vessels of the skin and the patient's body tries to get rid of the excess heat. When this patient needs to be undressed and rubbed with a solution of table vinegar( 1 part of table vinegar per 1 part of water) or alcohol( no more than 50%).
Recently, only ethyl alcohol has been used for rubbing such a percentage concentration of ethanol so that it can burn, and vinegar is said to be harmful to the kidneys. I do not know if this is true, if you know, write your thoughts in the comments.
"White" hyperthermia is manifested by a pronounced spasm of blood vessels and pallor of the skin. This means that the patient's body tries to keep the heat. In this case, the patient needs to be wrapped and given a warm drink.
When to bring down the temperature?
The main recommendation of pediatricians for lowering the temperature in a child, if it exceeds 38.5-39 degrees. The temperature below 38 degrees to knock down is not desirable, otherwise we suppress the protective forces of the body.
Situations when it is necessary to bring down the temperature below the above figures:
- When the child is not yet two or three months old. These children are advised to shoot down a temperature exceeding 38 degrees.
- If the kid has heart pathologies, nervous system diseases.
- When with fever, the baby had febrile seizures earlier.
- If the baby's condition has greatly worsened, the child is hard at tolerating heat.
- When the temperature rise in a child is triggered by the introduction of a vaccine.
Antipyretic Candles for Children
Candles, or suppositories at high temperature, have pluses uses:
- Suitable for the youngest who have not yet learned to ingest solid foods.
- Can be used for vomiting and while sleeping.
- Do not include chemical additives, so the risk of allergy is minimal.
- The effect is more prolonged from the antipyretic preparation in candles than when taken by mouth.
- The irritant effect of the drug on the gastric mucosa is excluded.
Up to six months of age, children's candles are an excellent way to reduce temperature.
Disadvantages of : however, I need to say a few words about the shortcomings of the introduction of antipyretic suppositories:
- They can cause a stool, it is necessary to enter the candle repeatedly.
- The introduction of a candle can cause resistance and protest in a child older than 6 months.
Contraindications : candles with antipyretic effects can not be used with:
- Hypersensitivity to their components.
- Serious disturbances in kidney or liver function.
Also, the use of suppositories is not recommended until the age of 1 month, and most antipyretic suppositories are intended only for children older than 3 months.
What is in the composition?
Candles used in childhood to reduce temperature include either paracetamol , or ibuprofen .These are the safest drugs used in children with fever. Their influence on the children's organism is well studied.
Which of the following is better?
paracetamol is considered safer, therefore it is more often prescribed to babies of the first year of life. In this case ibuprofen has a stronger effect, as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Both drugs have analgesic effect, so they can be used to eliminate pain.
Up to the year
Paracetamol is considered a safer drug for lowering the temperature in children up to the year .
Since 3 years
The use of antipyretics and preparations in candles in children older than three years is limited due to the discomfort of the procedure and a small dose of the active ingredient. But they will help, when the child has vomiting, a sore throat or an allergy to chemicals added to the antipyretics in syrups .
When choosing candles for children over 3 years old, consider the dose of the active ingredient. Preparations Cefekon D and Efferalgan are used in children under 10 years of age, as they are presented with a dosage of 250-300 mg of paracetamol.
The action of suppositories occurs in 30-40 minutes, therefore, sometimes you can use a syrup, a suspension, which will act after 20 minutes.
Syrups and other drugs taken through the mouth, reduce the temperature faster than candles.
Overview of the most popular candles from the temperature of
Cefekon D .It is applied from 1 month. In the composition of paracetamol. Children under 3 months - 1 candle 50 mg, from 3 months to 3 years - 1 candle 100 mg, children 3-10 years - 1 candle 250 mg. Enter with an interval of 4 to 6 hours. Apply up to 3 times a day for a maximum of three days.
Ibuprofen .It is applied from 3 months, in the structure of Ibuprofen. A child weighing up to 8 kg - 1 candle three times a day, with a weight of 8 to 12.5 kg - 1 candle 4 times a day. Enter with an interval of 6 hours. Assign no more than 3 days.
Nurofen .It is applied from 3 months. In the structure of Ibuprofen. Children weighing up to 8 kg - 1 / 2-1 candles up to 3 times a day, with a weight of 8 to 12.5 kg - 1 candle four times a day. Not suitable for children weighing less than 6 kg. Do not apply for longer than three days. Enter with an interval of 6 hours.
Children's Panadol .Use from 3 months. The active ingredient is Paracetamol. At the age of 3 months to 3 years - 1 candle. Enter no more than 4 candles per day. The interval of administration is at least 4 hours.
Efferalgan .Apply from 3 months of age. The active ingredient is Paracetamol. Children 3-5 months - 1 candle 80 mg, children over 6 months to 3 years of age - 1 candle 150 mg, children 4-10 years - 1 candle 300 mg. The minimum interval between administration is 4 hours. It is allowed to apply up to 3 days, in one day - up to 4 times.
How to introduce a candle to a child?
Toddler to lay on the left side, his legs bend in the knees and press them to the tummy. Then the adult pushes the buttocks of the baby and smears his anus with cream. The candle, released from the package, is carefully inserted by moving the narrow tip into the anus. The buttocks of the child are brought together, the legs are straightened. The child should lie down for a while after inserting the candle.
Children older than a year to insert a candle is more difficult, since they most often resist during the procedure.
EO Komarovsky: when candles are used, and when are syrups used?
A well-known pediatrician tells in his programs and videos to his parents that absorption from the rectum is slower than from the stomach, and in less quantity. Therefore, the dose of the medicine in candles is greater than in the syrup. At a high temperature in a child, when his condition is badly worsened, Komarovsky EO advises taking a febrifuge for children through the mouth - in the form of a syrup or suspension, since the effect will be more rapid.
Also, according to a pediatrician, in a serious condition at a very high temperature, the intestinal vessels are spasmodic and this will not give the necessary antipyretic effect from the candles.
Suppositories Komarowski recommends applying when you need a longer action of the drug if the temperature starts to rise before going to bed.
Antipyretic drugs: Dr Komarovsky's school
What drugs, lowering temperature, are the most effective and safe for children? How to calculate the dosage correctly, what does it depend on? Which is better - candles, syrup or tablets? These and other questions will be answered by Dr. Komarovsky. And on a visit to it the Ukrainian judoist, the winner and the prize-winner of the world championships and Europe, the deserved master of sports George Zantaraja.
Antipyretic drugs for children: what to choose?
How to knock down the temperature of a child with medicines? How to choose a febrifuge for a child? What is febrile convulsions? How to deal with white fever?
Elena Antsiferova, pediatrician, Ph. D., allergist-immunologist, gastroenterologist, author of the book "Clever Mother" tells.
Transfer of Kupyansky TV "Homemade first-aid kit" prepared by the employees of KP OZ CRA No. 63 in Kupyansk
How to overcome the cold: do not rush to lower the temperature!
Cold - the body's reaction to infection. It is caused by a bacterial infection or a virus: ARVI or adenovirus. The virus enters the body through the upper respiratory tract and multiplies in the mouth, in the throat and nasal cavity. You have a runny nose, sore throat, the temperature rises.
First tip - get rid of the symptoms of a cold: stuffy nose, sore throat, headache. You need to sleep more and nothing should stop you. So rinse your nose, inhale, rinse your throat with herbal infusion, ask for lozenges or cough drops, drink a pill from a headache and go to bed.
The second tip - do not lower the temperature until it reaches 38-38.5 degrees. The temperature rises because the body sends an army of hematopoietic bodies to fight infection. The war begins in the cells and gives off a lot of energy. Elevated temperature kills bacteria and triggers an immune response. So if you do not have concomitant diseases, in which elevated temperature is extremely dangerous, do not take antipyretic. But if the temperature rises to 39 degrees, call a doctor.
And tip number three - do not drink soluble hot drinks that promise to put you on your feet in one day. They consist of a shock dose of paracetamol, vasoconstrictor, expectorant, caffeine and ascorbic acid.
Source: YNGorgov. Official and traditional medicine. The most detailed encyclopedia.- Moscow: Izd-vo Eksmo, 2012.