Giardiasis is a common parasitic disease caused by Giardia. It also affects adults, but is more common in children. The main transmission mechanism is fecal-oral, the pathways of infection are food, water, and contact. Clinical symptoms are often scanty, characterized by digestive disorders (nausea, vomiting, discomfort and abdominal pain). The course of the disease is easy and often takes on a chronic form. The favorite habitat of the parasite is the liver and small intestine. How is the analysis of lamblia, we will consider in more detail.
- Forms of parasites
- Diagnosis of Giardiasis - what tests to take
- Kinds of analyzes on ljamblii
- Additional tests
- For the study, blood or feces are better
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Forms of parasites
Lamblias live in the human body in two forms, which replace one another:
- Mobile (vegetative) - actively parasitizes, feeds and multiplies due to the nutrients of the host.
- Fixed (cysts) is an inactive form that is excreted with feces and persists in the environment for a long time.
Diagnosis of the disease is directed to the detection of active and inactive forms of lamblia in feces, duodenal contents, a biopsy of the small intestine. Also, the serum of the blood is examined for antibodies to the structural components of the parasite.
Diagnosis of Giardiasis - what tests to take
At the moment, there is no 100% method of detecting lamblia in the human body, therefore, it is necessary to be examined comprehensively.
Diagnostic search begins with the analysis of complaints, examination of the patient, evaluation of the clinical picture. Specific symptoms of lambliasis are absent, the disease is masked for intestinal disorders, it can provoke allergic reactions, and also causes a general disorder (weakness, decreased performance, drowsiness).
Important! A reliable diagnosis can be established only on the basis of laboratory test data!
Kinds of analyzes on ljamblii
There are a number of studies that help diagnose giardiasis. Let's look at each analysis in more detail.
Microscopic examination of feces for cysts
Is the first method of diagnosis. It is included in the mandatory standard of research before the planned admission to the hospital, children's educational institutions and is called - feces for egg egg.
The analysis can give a negative result, because the selection of cysts occurs cyclically. In order to obtain a reliable result, feces must be taken 3 days in a row. The repeated three-day test is done after 10 days in case of negative results.
The laboratory uses a formalin-ether method of enrichment to preserve the parasite in the feces. In the liquid stool you can identify vegetative forms that live 30-60 minutes. In the decorated feces, cysts persist for up to 10 days. The earlier the laboratory receives the biomaterial for the study, the higher the risk of detection of the microorganism.
Analysis of feces for the antigen giardia lamblia
It is based on the identification of specific molecules (antigens), which are present only in lamblia. Monoclonal antibodies against the GSA-65 antigen are used. The method is popular in the network of Helix laboratories, it allows to detect the disease in the "dumb" period, when cysts are not allocated.
Stool examination for dysbiosis
With giardiasis, the intestinal flora changes. The number of fungi (Candida) increases, they work in symbiosis with Giardia. Candida synthesizes B vitamins, which feed on parasites. The E. coli is displaced, in the analysis its decrease is noted.
Examination of bile
It is performed with duodenal sounding. Microscopic analysis shows the presence of vegetative forms. The method can give a dubious result if the parasites are in the lower parts of the small intestine, therefore it is supplemented by other types of diagnostics. Currently, it is not used because of its laboriousness and little evidence.
Biopsy of the small intestine
Shows the structural changes in the organ, allows to detect the vegetative forms of lamblia. The disadvantage is the high cost of the method. It is used if there is a suspicion of a malignant process in the small intestine (immunohistochemical analysis).
Enterotest: what is it?
The essence of the method is the ingestion of a gelatin capsule, inside of which is a nylon thread. In the stomach, the capsule dissolves, the filament is exposed and enters the small intestine with the food lump, where the vegetative forms of lamblia settle on it. The thread naturally leaves the body, after which it is microscopically examined.
Serological examination (ELISA)
The blood from a vein is taken on an empty stomach, it is centrifuged and in it the presence of antibodies to lamblia in the serum is determined. Total antibodies (immunoglobulins M and G) are determined.
Decoding of the obtained results:
- Immunoglobulins (Ig) M - the early fraction of antibodies, which is synthesized in the first 10 - 14 days from the time of infection. A positive result indicates an acute process. Over time, their number decreases, IgG is synthesized.
- Immunoglobulins G - are produced later and persist in the blood for a long time (up to 6 months). Are the most significant.
- Increased levels of IgM and IgG - we can judge the exacerbation of the chronic process, re-infection.
The higher the level of antibodies in the blood, the more pronounced the degree of infection.
The result can be weakly positive, when there are antibodies, but there is no lamblia in the body (with negative PCR analysis). This is due to the cross-reaction in the presence of other simple parasites in the body (intestinal amoeba, blastocysts).
Important! The level of antibodies depends on the state of the immune system! When it is weakened, the antibodies may be absent.
PCR - polymerase chain reaction
It allows to reveal the genetic material of the microorganism in feces. He is the most accurate in terms of performance (98%). It is used extremely rarely in the diagnosis of Giardiasis.
Used to assess the overall response of the body to parasite invasion. You can pass a general blood test, which will show an increase in the level of leukocytes, eosinophils and ESR. What does it mean? In the body there is an inflammatory process and an allergic reaction in response to the ingestion of a foreign agent.
Biochemical analysis of blood will reveal violations in the liver if the parasite is localized in it. There may be deviations from the norm of the level of total bilirubin, ALT, AST. Hemotest - an investigation for food intolerance. With giardiasis, the course of allergic diseases is aggravated.
For the study, blood or feces are better
It can only be decided by a doctor, correctly assessing the data of clinical studies, the individual characteristics of the patient. It is better for a child to conduct a serological test immediately, which can be supplemented with a study of stool. If the parasite is not detected in time, the state of the child organism may worsen.
Regular adherence to personal hygiene and preventive examination are the best ways to avoid giardiasis. Timely detection of the parasite allows you to quickly assign a specific therapy and avoid the chronic form of the disease.
Long-term parasitic infestation in the body significantly undermines the health of the body, uses its nutrients for its development, reduces the protective capabilities of the immune system. The disease is well treatable, so do not delay the process. It is necessary to consult a specialist.