Under the name fern hides 10560 species.
They are known to mankind since the Paleozoic times - this is the only ancient plant that managed to preserve such a variety of species so far.
They are distributed all over the world, and differ markedly among themselves.
- What kinds of used man
- Orlyak( Pterídium aquilínum)
- ostrich fern( Matteúccia struthiópteris)
- Useful properties
- Traditional medicine
- Healthy Eating
- Harvesting for the future
- harm and contraindications
What kinds of used man
family fern widely, however,not all of them are used by man.
Consider the most common.
Male( Dryopteris filix-mas) or scratcher
Known in the northern hemisphere, in temperate climates.
Medicinal preparations are prepared from rhizomes, shoots are used for food.
The plant itself, is actively used in decorative gardening. Some types are used in perfumery production.
The scientific name Dryopteris( lat.) Is translated as a fern of oak oak groves.
Large terrestrial plants with a strong rhizome, protruding above the ground and covered with scales.
The leaves are twice or three-pinnate, the upper plate of the leaf is smooth, and the sporangia are located on the lower plate, with the help of which reproduction occurs.
The leaf rachis is covered with the same scales as the rhizome.
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Openwork patterned leaves are collected in neat beams and very decorative. The height of adult plants averages 0.3-1 m, sometimes more.
Propagates by spores, does not bloom. It remains a mystery why the myth is so widespread among the people about the fern blooming on the night of Ivan Kupala.
The plant is poisonous, therefore it is not recommended to use it alone.
Orlyak( Pterídium aquilínum)
A perennial herbaceous plant with beautiful twice- and three-leaved leaves( vayas), sometimes called Jesus grass .
In general, there are several versions about the origin of the name of this common fern.
Someone sees in it the similarity of a leaf plate with a wing of a bird, others on a stalk cut out an eagle from the state arms, and to someone the plant reminds an eagle's bearing.
Rhizome rhizomes are located deep, which contributes to vegetative reproduction.
The leaves grow not in bundles, but alone, its thickets form a continuous carpet.
Distributed in the European part of Russia and beyond the Urals - a lot of it in Siberia and the Far East.
Common eagle is used for food in many countries, and in Japan and China it is considered a delicacy.
Tightly twisted, like a spring, young juicy shoots not yet in time to turn around are suitable for use, only under special processing conditions - they are not eaten fresh, as they are poisonous .
Treatment is carried out immediately after harvesting - cut young sprouts instantly coarsen, while the concentration of toxic substances increases.
Collection of young shoots is similar to picking up a flower bouquet - brittle stems break off at a height of 15-20 cm and collect in bundles.
The use of an ordinary eagle is not limited to only young shoots.
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Rhizomes rich in starch go for the preparation of glue, they are made of:
- flour( about the benefits of amaranth read here),
- bakes bread,
Leaves are added to feed chickens in epidemics, they are given to goats, and the roots are eaten by pigs. For other types of livestock fern is not good, they can poison it.
There are many more directions where this unique plant benefits man - with his help scared off bloodsucking insects.
Once upon a time, leaves:
- covered the roofs of houses( in the appropriate climate),
- stoked the furnaces,
- was used as a fertilizer,
- stems woven rugs and other products,
- made soap,
- washing liquor,
- used for tanning leather.
Widely used in folk medicine.
Strautnik ordinary( Matteúccia struthiópteris)
In Russia, this elegant fern is common in the European part, in the regions of Siberia and the Far East.
Distinctive feature - the lower part of the leaves quickly decolorizes, while the leaves are divided:
- into vegetative, outwardly developing outlets,
- sporiferous, occupying the central part.
Grows, mainly, near to water or on the bottom of ravines, loves fertile soil.
Decorative qualities have caused the use of:
- in landscape gardens,
- landscape design,
- florists, when composing bouquets.
Young shoots are used for food.
Like previous ferns, it is used in folk and official medicine.
Folk and official medicine have estimated useful properties of the fern for a long time. Apply and external, and inside. Fern:
- removes radioactive substances from the body,
- destroys banded parasites( how to apply wormwood written in this article),
- helps with headaches,
- bowel diseases,
- normalizes metabolism.
Externally used with:
- pustular formations,
In China, fern is treated with infectious hepatitis.
For treatment, rhizomes of plants are used, on the basis of which various drugs are prepared.
From broiled and crushed roots( it is permissible to use fresh ones) at home, broths are prepared.
A teaspoon of finished raw material is poured with water and boiled for 10 minutes, taken with honey together, one spoonful per reception.
Correctly prepared dishes from a fern are tasty and, at the same time, are useful. To taste and smell like mushrooms.
The fern is absorbed by the body easily, by the properties and the content of proteins it is close to the crops( the benefits of kvass from barley, oats and corn at home are written on this page).
The use of fern shoots for food, positively affects growth, normalizes the endocrine system, and improves metabolism. Working capacity rises.
Per 100 g of product accounts for 4.55 g of protein, 5.54 g of carbohydrates and 0.4 g of fat. Caloric content 34 kcal.
- essential oils,
- hydrocyanic acid,
Young shoots contain vitamins, carotene, there are tocopherols, ribovolavins, nicotinic acid.
Workpiece for future use
For the preparation of medicinal products from the fern, the roots of the plant are harvested( the curative properties of the moor aureus).
Time of harvesting - early spring or autumn.
The roots( about the medicinal properties of horse sorrel, read here) are excavated with a shovel, cleaned of the ground, cut into parts and dried at a temperature not exceeding 40 degrees.
Useful properties are retained for a year.
When harvesting, part of the roots( medicinal properties of burdock are described in this article), plants are left intact so that it continues to grow.
When it comes to harvesting a fern for use in food, young shoots are the subject of collection - the raspis of .
Only very small shoots, up to 20 cm long, are suitable for eating.
They must be brittle and fragile - if the shoot can not be broken, then do not even try to do it - in that case it is no longer suitable. The most delicious part of the shoots is the twisted part( "snails").
It is interesting that in fresh form shoots in food are not used, preliminary preparation is necessary.
For this, they are boiled in salted water, several times changing the water. Long cooking can not be enough for 3 minutes.
The task is to get rid of bitterness and toxins, but not to allow softening.
Shoots should remain firm and crisp.
After boiling, they are used for cooking salads and side dishes, independent dishes.
To save the billets for future use, shoots are salted, marinated or dried.
There are two ways of pickling:
- The layers of fresh fern are sprinkled with salt, pressed down with a load.
After 2 weeks, the brine is drained, and the fern is shifted and again covered with salt, only the concentration is reduced.
Before using for food, salted shoots are soaked in cold water for two days, while water is changed 6-8 times.
- Accelerate the process of pickling , will help to boil and drain water.
Then shoots are covered with salt at the rate of 250-300 g per 1 kg of fern.
Before consumption, soak as well as in the first case.
The salted fern is freed from the brine and dried. Marinate the fern as well as mushrooms.
Harm and contraindications
The real harm brings only an incorrect application of the fern for treatment or nutrition. The cause is the poisonous properties of the plant. It is impossible to carry out treatment with fern and preparations on its basis to children, pregnant women, people with weakened immunity.
Drug overdose is dangerous. Treatment is carried out under the supervision of the attending physician.
Take a look at the master class on how to prepare a healthy dish from the fern leaves at home.