Pain shock is manifested by the reaction of the human body and its consciousness to unbearable pain resulting from trauma or complications of any pathological process occurring inside the body. It has characteristic, depending on traumatic damage, symptoms and signs, it disrupts all vital functions and life support of the organism.
Is it possible to die from the symptoms of pain shock? Yes, if you do not provide first aid to the victim in time! Strictly speaking, all that will be considered in this publication and much more, you can find on the page devoted to traumatic shock and the principles of emergency care in it, for pain always accompanies traumatic injuries of the human body - adult and child.
Pain shock: symptomsand signs of a shock state
Pain shock is a rapidly developing and life-threatening body reaction to excessive pain, accompanied by severe disruption of all organs and their systems.
Its main feature is, in addition to acute pain, lowering blood pressure. Any injury can serve as the cause of the shock:
- mechanical impact;
- electric shock;
- knife or bullet wounds;
- complications of diseases( stiffening of the food lump in the esophagus, rupture of the uterus, ectopic pregnancy, colic in the liver and kidneys, heart attack, perforated stomach ulcer, stroke).
Injuries, along with this, as a rule, violate the integrity of blood vessels and are accompanied by loss of blood. As a result, the volume of the circulating fluid decreases, the organs do not feed on blood, are not supplied with oxygen, do not produce carbon dioxide and decay products. Organs lose the ability to exercise functions and die.
In this regard, at the outset, we note that it is necessary to provide first aid to the victim with a painful shock:
- If possible, stop further injury to the body.
- Stop the blood.
- Call an ambulance.
It all depends on the cause that caused the shock state.
The first phase of pain shock - excitement, the second - inhibition. Each of them has its own symptoms.
At the initial stage( erectile) patient is excited, he has euphoria, increased pulse, respiratory movements, finger tremors, high blood pressure, pupils dilate, he does not realize his condition. A person can shout out sounds, make rough movements. The stage lasts up to 15 minutes.
The first phase of pain shock is replaced by torpid. Its main sign is a decrease in pressure, and also:
- loss of consciousness;
- lethargy, apathy, inhibition, indifference to what is happening( although there may be excitement and anxiety);
- pallor of the skin;
- is a non-traceable, frequent, threadlike pulse;
- body temperature decrease;
- coldness of hands and feet;
- loss of sensitivity;
- surface respiration;
- blue lips and nails;
- large drops of sweat;
- reduction in muscle tone.
It is the second phase that manifests itself in acute heart failure and stress reaction in the form of failure of all other organ systems to such an extent that it is impossible to maintain vital functions.
In this phase, the following degrees of shock are distinguished:
- I degree - violations in the movement of blood in the vessels are not expressed, blood pressure and pulse are normal.
- II degree - the pressure decreases in the heart muscle to 90-100 mm Hg.st., there is a blockage, rapid pulse, the skin becomes white, peripheral veins collapse.
- III degree - the patient's condition is severe, blood pressure drops to 60-80 mm Hg. The pulse is weak, 120 beats per minute, the skin is pale, an ice-cold sweat appears.
- IV degree - the condition of the victim is regarded as very serious, his thoughts are confused, the consciousness is lost, the skin and nails turn blue, a marble( spotted) pattern appears. The arterial pressure is 60 mm Hg.st., pulse - 140-160 beats per minute, it can be palpated only on large vessels.
Remember: Do not use analgesics under reduced pressure and craniocerebral trauma!
Pain shock: first aid, algorithm for rendering
First, remember? It is necessary to "separate" the victim from the source of pain! Stop further destruction of the body! Everything depends on the cause of the shock: electric shock, burn, car accident and much more. If it's bleeding, stop the blood!
- Initially, the patient needs to be warmed up using warmers, blankets, warm clothes, then hot with hot tea. In case of pain, the victim is forbidden to drink. In the presence of vomiting and wounds of the abdominal cavity, drink liquids are prohibited!
- A cold object, for example, ice is applied to the place of damage. Remove foreign objects from the patient's body before the arrival of doctors is not permissible!
- If the pain shock is caused by trauma, it is necessary to stop bleeding by applying harnesses, bandages, clamps, tampons, pressing cotton-gauze dressings.
- In case of loss of blood, the damaged vessel is clamped with a tourniquet, with wounds, fractures and violation of the integrity of soft tissues, a tire is applied. It should go beyond the joints above and below the damaged bone site, and between it and the body it is necessary to lay a gasket.
The patient can only be transported after the symptoms of shock have been removed.
To stop an attack of pain at home will help the injection of ketorol, baralgina, analgin. And best of all - narcotic analgesics, but this will already be done by medical workers.
Treatment of a shock state in a hospital
For each stage and type of shock, developed their own treatment measures, but there are general rules for the treatment of shock.
You need to help as early as possible( the shock lasts about a day).Therapy is long, complex and depends on the cause and severity of the condition.
Medical activities include:
- bringing to the desired level of circulating fluid volume( replenishment of blood loss through intravenous fluids infusion);
- normalization of the internal environment of the body;
- Pain relief pain medication;
- elimination of respiratory failure;
- preventive and rehabilitation measures.
In the case of I-II degree shock, plasma or 400-800 ml of Polyglucin is intravenously injected to block pain. This is important when moving a patient for a long distance and preventing the aggravation of shock.
During the movement of the patient, the receipt of drugs is stopped.
In case of shock II-III degree, after injection of Polyglucinum, 500 ml of saline or 5% glucose solution is poured, later again Polyglucin is prescribed with the addition of 60-120 ml of Prednisolone or 125-250 ml of adrenal hormones.
In severe cases, infusions are produced in both veins.
In addition to injections at the fracture site, local anesthesia is performed with 0.25-0.5% solution of Novocain.
If internal organs are not affected, 1-2 ml of 2% Promedol, 1-2 ml of 2% Omnepona or 1-2 ml of 1% morphine are injected to the victim for anesthesia, and also inject Tramadol, Ketanov or a mixture of Analgin and Dimedrolum in the ratio2: 1.
During shock III-IV degree, anesthesia is performed only after the appointment of Polyglukin or Reopoliglyukin, analogues of adrenal hormones are introduced: 90-180 ml of Prednisolone, 6-8 ml of Dexamethasone, 250 ml of hydrocortisone.
The patient is prescribed drugs that increase blood pressure.
You can not achieve a rapid rise in blood pressure. Enter protein substances that increase blood pressure( mezaton, dopamine, norepinephrine), is strictly prohibited!
In all types of shock, oxygen inhalation is indicated.
Even after some time after the shock state due to the violation of blood supply, the pathology of the internal organs is possible. This is expressed in poor coordination of movements, inflammation of the peripheral nerves. Without the adoption of anti-shock measures, death from pain shock occurs, so it is important to be able to provide first aid.
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Here you will find a training film on the rules of emergency first aid for traumatic shock, including pain syndrome.