An electrocardiogram( ECG) is a widely used and universally used rather objective method for diagnosing various diseases and pathologies of the cardiovascular system and the heart in particular.
ECG is a kind of heart record and looks like a graph of curved lines, automatically printed out by the machine. According to the interpretation of this graph, one can draw conclusions about the work of the heart, make a diagnosis and make a conclusion about the overall state of the cardiovascular system.
Violation of repolarization processes is any change in the stage of relaxation of the heart muscle after contraction. Identify these violations can only be through decoding the electrocardiogram schedule.
- 1 Normal indications and causes of changes
- 2 How to determine abnormalities in a cardiogram
- 3 Diagnosis of
- 4 What diseases are caused by
- 5 Additional studies in diagnosis
- 6 Treatment tactics
Normal indicators and causes of changes
The repolarization process is a state during which the initial recovery) of the cell membrane potential and the restoration of its electric charge. Nerve impulses( potassium ions) should leave the membrane, accumulation of energy, enzymes and oxygen saturation takes place in the cell.
The decoding of the electrocardiogram is very individual. The specialist should pay attention to many factors and indicators. is almost impossible to determine the violation of repolarization processes, because several indicators have been changed at once, and these changes may be insignificant or nonspecific.
However, some abnormalities can be indicative when diagnosed. Some normal ECG transcripts:
- Teeth .
- T .VR is a negative value. Sent upwards. When the indicator changes, there may be a hyper- or hypoglycemia. The ratio of this tooth to the others is of paramount importance for the determination of disturbances in repolarization processes.
- Q .The norm is 1/4 R at 0.3 c. Increase - there may be pathologies of the myocardium.
- R .The norm is determined on every lead. In the absence of possible hypertrophy of the ventricles.
- S .The normal height is 20mm. The ST segment is important.
- P .The first-second lead is a positive value. VR is negative. The norm is 0.1 c.
- Intervals .
- QT - up to 0,4 c.
- PQ - 0.12 sec.
- RR - 0,62 - 0,66 - 0,6.
- complex QRS - up to 0.1 c.
- General Information .
- heart rate - within the range of 60-85 beats per minute.
- Rhythm is sinusoidal.
- Normal location of the electrical axis of the heart( without deviations in the right or left side).
Usually in the conclusion the expert writes decoding precisely on these parameters. But if the patient already has some diagnosis or suspicion of presence, more detailed data are indicated, where the focuses on specific violations of various indicators of ( for example, the length of specific teeth or intervals, the distance from certain points).
How to determine deviations from the cardiogram
To draw a conclusion about the violation of repolarization processes on ECG in adults or children, during the decoding of the results of the cardiogram , the specialist draws attention to the following factors:
- Pathological changes in the T wave;
- Deviation of the ST segment from the isoline;
- Violation of the QRS complex( normal Q and S teeth are negative, and the R wave is positive);
- Changing of the tooth P.
The syndrome of early cardiac ventricular repolarization on ECG is characterized by some specific deviations :
- segment ST starts to rise from point J;
- tooth T narrow, significant symmetry breaking;
- in the lower part of the R wave, there are jags or other changes;
- , an upwardly directed concavity is formed in the ST segment.
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The most important stage in the diagnosis of violations of repolarization processes is the electrocardiogram. But for the final diagnosis, it often is not enough. The specialist should consider the presence of concomitant diseases , assign additional studies and only then make a final conclusion.
On the other hand, the symptoms of this disease are so unspecific and weakly expressed that most often such violations are detected by accident - during routine inspections or fixed on an electrocardiogram prescribed by a cardiologist in connection with other diagnoses.
Violation of repolarization processes can lead to the appearance of some negative symptoms in the event that changes are susceptible to all processes in the myocardium as a whole, that is, diffusely. Then appears typical for cardiac pathologies and not only for them the symptoms of :
- Rapid fatigue, general exhaustion;
- Chest pain and aching sensation in the heart;
- Emotional exhaustion, tearfulness, irritability;
- Heart rate abnormalities, inconsistent rhythm.
Recently specialists have noted the increased level of the syndrome of early repolarization .There is no unambiguous answer as to why this happens. Moreover, this diagnosis is increasingly used by adolescents and young people under 35 years of age.
What diseases are caused by
The causes of the violations are very diverse and numerous. Specialists do not give a clear answer, which can serve as the reason for their occurrence. This can also be non-clinical factors of , which are not diseases and do not require treatment, and serious pathologies, where timely treatment is vital.
The most common change in is the following factors:
- Nonspecific. Nervous exhaustion, physical stress, stress, hormonal disruption and many other factors that affect the general condition of the body and affect the work of the heart indirectly.
- The sensitivity of heart tissue to the effect of epinephrine and norepinephrine. A general increase in the levels of these hormones.
- Abuse of medical drugs that affect the cardiovascular system and increase the burden on the heart.
- Electrolyte imbalance.
- Overvoltage and hypertrophy of the ventricular myocardium.
- Ischemic heart disease.
- Violation of the neuroendocrine system.
- Hypersympathicotonia( an increase in the tone of the autonomic nervous system, a diffuse disorder appears on its background).
- Changing the normal sequence of depolarization processes.
- Various inflammatory and dystrophic lesions of tissues.
- Block block of the bundle branches( refers to the group of violations characterized by the extension of the QRS complex).
Additional studies in the diagnosis of
In addition to the electrocardiogram and for the diagnosis of disturbed repolarization processes, the cardiologist may prescribe other studies:
- Functional pharmacological tests( most often, potassium chloride and anaprilin).
- Ultrasound examinations.
- Samples with physical loads.
- Study of the hormonal status of
Tactics of treatment
To treat should not themselves disturb the repolarization process, and the root cause of the occurrence is this or that disease. But if an accurate diagnosis has not yet been made or it is not possible to ascertain it, the cardiologist can prescribe a comprehensive therapy of , which contributes to the improvement of the indices:
- Beta-blockers( anaprilin, panangin).Appointed only in the event of a significant threat to the health or even the life of the patient.
- Drugs that stimulate the synthesis of carbohydrates from proteins( hormones corticotropic action - cortisone).Drugs that improve heart function, controlling carbohydrate metabolism in the body and normalizing processes in the central and peripheral nervous system( specifically trophic) - cocarboxylase hydrochloride
- Complexes of vitamins and microelements that fill missing components.
Violation of repolarization processes can be caused by a number of factors. But all of them can be timely diagnosed and compensated. Already arose disease speaks of missed diagnoses. In the case of problems with the cardiovascular system, neglect of simple rules of prevention can cause serious harm to health.