Poisoning by alcohol, its surrogates and methyl alcohol

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It is known that alcohol is a poison of narcotic effect. Therefore, with an overdose, it causes not only intoxication, but also poisoning, sometimes dangerous for life. But not only this, in addition to ethanol( ethanol), people consume( in error or intentionally) various alcohol substitutes and methyl( wood) alcohol. It is important to know the symptoms of this type of poisoning, what to do and how to properly provide first aid to the injured person.


Action of alcohol

The effect of alcohol drinks on different people varies. It depends on the weight of a person, and on his habit of drinking, and on physical development, and also on the type and quality of alcohol. On people weakened, sick and, especially, on children, even the smallest doses of alcohol are exciting. Large doses cause inhibition of the cerebral cortex. Especially strong alcohol affects the medulla oblongata and its centers, which causes all the unpleasant sensations of hangover syndrome.

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Pathological alcoholic intoxication - a special condition that occurs after drinking alcohol and is expressed in delusions, hallucinations and obscuration of consciousness.

Pathological alcoholic intoxication does not occur often. It can be observed in persons who have been exposed to additional harmful effects for a long time( various chronic diseases of internal organs, atherosclerosis, fatigue, etc.).

Symptoms and signs of poisoning

Pathological alcoholic intoxication may develop even after taking a small amount of alcohol. At the same time, the behavior of the patient changes dramatically: contact with others is lost, the patient's actions become signs of automatism, hallucinations and delusions appear. At such times, the patient's behavior is marked by increased aggressiveness, senseless cruelty and uncontrollability. The condition of pathological intoxication lasts from several minutes to several hours and ends with a deep sleep, after which the patient does not remember anything.

The recognition of pathological intoxication is based on a sudden change in the patient's behavior, the appearance of delusions and hallucinations in him, as well as automatism in actions and deeds.

In mild cases of alcohol poisoning , mental disorders, tachycardia( increased number of heartbeats), increased blood pressure, nausea and vomiting are noted.

In severe cases of , disorders of the central nervous system and heart are observed. When taking too large a dose of alcohol, the respiratory center becomes oppressed, the breathing becomes superficial, the pulse becomes more frequent, the blood pressure decreases and a coma may occur, often ending with the patient's death.

First aid for poisoning with alcohol and its surrogates

When poisoning with alcohol or its surrogates, the following emergency measures should be taken:

  1. Urgently clean the patient of the stomach( if he is conscious).To do this, give a drink of 1-1.5 liters of warm water with the addition of soda( 2 teaspoons per liter of water).After that, pressing a spoon on the root of the tongue( or putting two fingers in the mouth), cause vomiting.
  2. After three or four times washing the stomach, the patient is given two glasses of strong tea or coffee.
  3. Remove the affected person or take it to fresh air.
  4. Put the patient on the head with ice or a rag with cold water. You can make an enema from very cold water.
  5. Give 2 tablets of activated charcoal every two hours.
  6. Call a physician.

Alcoholic intoxication is well removed with ammonia or mint alcohol( 20 drops of alcohol per glass of water).

If the patient is unconscious, then gastric lavage is done through the probe, in a hospital setting. At the same time, the patient's head turns sideways so that it does not choke with vomit.

Algorithm and sequence of actions for poisoning:

  • clean the mouth, lay the victim on its side to prevent aspiration of vomit;
  • gastric lavage, giving adsorbents and laxatives;
  • in severe cases - hospitalization for infusion therapy( glucose 5% solution 1-1.5 l IV drip);
  • Atropine 0.1% solution of 0.5-1 ml;
  • Cordiamine 2 ml s / c;
  • Sodium bicarbonate 4% solution up to 1 liter IV drip.

Poisoning with methyl, or wood alcohol

Symptoms when taking methyl alcohol are manifested as a slight irritation of the mucous membranes and the appearance of signs of alcohol intoxication. After a latent period, which lasts from 12 to 40 hours, the patient begins to worry about dizziness, headache, weakness, nausea and vomiting, pain in the abdomen, in the muscles, in the heart.

Usually, the victims suffer greatly from vision. Patients complain of fog before their eyes, flashing of flies, fuzzy vision of various objects. Sometimes blindness comes. In case of severe methanol poisoning, the skin is cold, "marbled", the breathing is uneven and noisy, the arterial pressure is low.

Cramps often appear on the background of psychomotor agitation. On the third or fourth day develops acute renal failure. Death occurs as a result of central paralysis of the breath.

First emergency aid

  1. The first necessary measure is gastric lavage and copious drinking. In water for washing, add the following mixture as adsorbent: tannin - 1 part, activated carbon - 2 parts, burnt magnesia - 1 part. In the absence of all components, you can use each one individually. Give the victim 2-3 egg white, kefir, milk or jelly;
  2. give the victim a laxative;
  3. after first aid - hospitalization.
  4. When poisoning with methyl or wood alcohol, give the victim a drink of 100 ml of ethyl alcohol!

Ethyl alcohol is an antidote for poisoning with these substances, as it slows their absorption into the bloodstream.

Source: NGNogov. Official and traditional medicine. The most detailed encyclopedia.- Moscow: Izd-vo Eksmo, 2012.