Currently, the percentage of children with excess weight increases at an alarming rate. If you take on average, every third child or teenager is gaining excess weight or is obese.
Modern kids spend much less time on moving games and training. They spend more time at the computer, video games or TV.Moreover, the employment of parents during working hours does not allow them to prepare healthy home food for breakfasts, suppers and dinners. Therefore, food in a hurry, and even half-finished or fast food, do their unseemly work, which disrupts the metabolism in the young body.
How to protect children from being overweight? It is necessary to establish a correct and rational diet and movement regimen in the family, exercise, as well as a useful joint family vacation. Parents, by their own example, should instil in their children a harmonious healthy lifestyle in all its possible aspects.
Do you think your child has excess weight or lack of it?
WHO( World Health Organization), in the US - the Ministry of Health, as well as many countries in the world, to evaluate the presence of excess weight in children and adults successfully apply the body mass index( BMI) formula, which is based on the ratio of height and weight, and subsequent calculationthe proportion of fat in the human body.
The method of counting BMI was developed by Adolf Quetelet, which for children provides a special calculation scheme. First you need to calculate the BMI of the child according to the general formula, see the body mass index calculator( BMI) according to the Quetelet formula:
BMI = body weight, kg /( height, m) 2, that is, we first measure the height of the child in meters( comma), erect them in a square, then take the mass of the body in kilograms and divide by the height in meters, squared!
Due to the fact that children and adolescents are characterized by active growth and development, their BMI can vary significantly within a short period of time. Therefore, the usual BMI score, common in adults, does not suit them. To accurately and correctly assess the body mass index of the child, the researchers examined the ratio of the mass and growth of many thousands of children. And when you need to determine whether your child's BMI is the norm or deviate from it, comparative tables - "percentage curves", or distribution scales - with average indicators for children of this age and growth will give you an opportunity to understand whether weight correction needs to be done.
Thus, your child's body mass index is compared with the average of thousands of other children. This approach takes into account the stages of development that children undergo in certain age groups. For example, if a child has a body mass index higher than 97% of children of his age, it can be concluded that the child is overweight.
The following table provides information on the BMI of adolescents and children of both sexes from 2 to 20 years of age.
As a result, your child's BMI will fall into one of four categories:
- Weight Loss : BMI below the 5th average( percentage curve);
- Healthy weight : BMI between the 5th and 85th average;
- Overweight : BMI between 85 and 95;
- Obesity : BMI falls into the 95th indicator area or higher.
For children under 2 years old, doctors use weight-gain and weight-gain diagrams, as well as a thorough visual inspection.
Table for estimating the mass and height of a child by BMI
|Age||Height in cm||Weight in kg|
|Indicator||Very low||Low||Medium||High||Very high||Very low||Low||Medium||High||Very high|
|1 month||49,5 cm||51,2see||54.5 cm.||56.5 cm.||57.3 cm.||3.3 kg.||3,6 kg.||4.3 kg.||5.1 kg.||5.4 kg.|
|2 month||52,6 cm.||53,8 cm.||57,3 cm.||59,4 cm.||60,9 cm.||3,9 kg.||4.2 kg.||5.1 kg.||6.0 kg.||6,4 kg.|
|3 months||55,3 cm.||56,5 cm.||60,0 cm.||62,0 cm.||63,8 cm.||4,5 kg.||4.9 kg.||5.8 kg.||7,0 kg.||7,3 kg.|
|4 months||57,5 cm.||58,7 cm.||62,0 cm.||64,5 cm.||66,3 cm.||5,1 kg.||5,5 kg.||6,5 kg.||7.6 kg.||8,1 kg.|
|5 months||59,9 see||61,1 see||64,3 see||67 see||68,9 see||5,6 kg.||6,1 kg.||7.1 kg.||8.3 kg.||8,8 kg.|
|6 months||61,7 cm.||63 cm.||66,1 cm.||69 cm.||71,2 cm.||6,1 kg.||6.6 kg.||7.6 kg.||9.0 kg.||9.4 kg.|
|7 months||63,8 cm.||65,1 cm.||68 cm.||71,1 cm.||73,5 cm.||6,6 kg.||7.1 kg.||8,2 kg.||9.5 kg.||9.9 kg.|
|8 months||65,5 cm||66,8 cm||70 cm||73,1 cm||75,3 cm||7,1 kg.||7.5 kg.||8.6 kg.||10 kg.||10.5 kg.|
|9 months||67,3 see||68,2 see||71,3 see||75,1 see||78,8 see||7,5 kg.||7.9 kg.||9,1 kg.||10.5 kg.||11 kg.|
|10 months||68.8 cm.||69.1 cm.||73 cm.||76.9 cm.||78.8 cm.||7.9 kg.||8,3 kg.||9.5 kg.||10.9 kg.||11,4 kg.|
|11 months||70,1 cm.||71,3 cm.||74,3 cm.||78 cm.||80,3 cm.||8,2 kg.||8,6 kg.||9.8 kg.||11,2 kg.||11.8 kg.|
|Age||Height in cm.||Weight in kg.|
|Indicator||Very low||Low||Medium||High||Very high||Very low||Low||Medium||High||Very high|
|1 year||71.2 cm||72.3 cm||75.5 cm||79,7 cm.||81.7 cm.||8.5 kg.||8.9 kg.||10.0 kg.||11.6 kg.||12,1 kg.|
|2 years||81,3 see||83 see||86,8 see||90,8 see||94 see||10,6 kg.||11 kg.||12.6 kg.||14,2 kg.||15,0 kg.|
|3 years||88 see||90 see||96 see||102,0 see||104,5 see||12,1 kg.||12.8 kg.||14,8 kg.||16,9 kg.||17.7 kg.|
|4 years||93.2 cm.||95.5 cm.||102 cm.||108 cm.||110,6 cm.||13,4 kg.||14,2 kg.||16.4 kg.||19.4 kg.||20,3 kg.|
|5 years||98,9 cm.||101,5 cm||108,3 cm.||114,5 cm.||117 cm.||14,8 kg.||15.7 kg.||18.3 kg.||21,7 kg.||23,4 kg.|
|6 years||105 see||107,7 cm.||115 cm||121,1 cm.||123,8 cm.||16,3 kg.||17,5 kg.||20.4 kg.||24.7 kg.||26.7 kg.|
|7 years||111 see||113,6 cm.||121,2 cm.||128 cm.||130,6 cm.||18 kg.||19.5 kg.||22.9 kg.||28 kg.||30,8 kg.|
|8 years||116,3 see||119 see||126,9 see||134,5 see||137 see||of 20 kg.||21,5 kg.||25,5 kg.||31,4 kg.||35,5 kg.|
|9 years||121,5 see||124,7 see||133,4 see||140,3 see||143 see||21,9 kg.||23,5 kg.||28,1 kg.||35,1 kg.||39,1 kg.|
|10 years||126.3 cm.||129.4 cm.||137.8 cm.||146.7 cm.||149.2 cm.||23.9 kg.||25,6 kg.||31,4 kg.||39.7 kg.||44,7 kg.|
|11 years||131,3 see||134,5 see||143,2 see||152,9 see||156,2 see||26 kg.||28 kg.||34.9 kg.||44.9 kg.||51.5 kg.|
|12 years||136,2 see||140 see||149,2 see||159,5 see||163,5 see||28,2 kg.||30.7 kg.||38.8 kg.||50,6 kg.||58,7 kg.|
|13 years||141,8 see||145,7 see||154,8 see||166 see||170,7 see||30,9 kg.||33.8 kg.||43.4 kg.||56.8 kg.||66.0 kg.|
|14 years||148,3 see||152,3 see||161,2 see||172 see||176,7 see||34,3 kg.||38 kg.||48,8 kg.||63.4 kg.||73.2 kg.|
|15 years||154,6 cm.||158,6 cm.||166,8 cm.||177,6 cm.||181,6 cm.||38,7 kg.||43 kg.||54.8 kg.||70 kg.||80,1 kg.|
In parallel with this BMI is not an ideal indicator of the amount of fat in the body and at times can be misleading. For example, a teenager with advanced muscles can have a high BMI without excess weight( muscles are added to body weight, not to excess weight).In addition, BMI can be difficult to assess correctly during puberty, in which young people are experiencing stages of rapid growth. In any case, it's important to remember that BMI is usually a good indicator, but it's not the very measurement of body fat.
It will help to establish the exact percentage of fat tissue bioimpedance analysis. With the help of a certain device a safe weak electric current is passed through the human body, changing its frequency. Different tissues of the body have different resistance to the electric current, so it becomes possible to calculate what proportion of the body is in the muscles, and which - on the bone and fat.
If you are very worried that your child is overweight or underweight, sign up for a consultation with a doctor who will evaluate nutrition and physical activity, and give recommendations for positive changes. The doctor can recommend the prevention of certain diseases associated with underweight or obesity.
Norms for weight and height of a child by age: Growth chart and weight of a child up to the year
Table of growth and weight of a child by years
What to do in order to prevent overweight and obesity?
Take note that the key to maintaining a healthy child at any age is an image-example of the life of all senior members of the family.
Make physical activity and healthy eating a family hobby. And for the interest of children, let them help in planning a healthy menu and preparing it, take them with you to grocery stores so that they learn how to choose healthy and rational foods.
Do not fall into traps and trap stereotypes of everyday thinking about nutrition:
- Do not reward children for good behavior and do not try to keep them from bad behavior with sweets or treats. Encouragement or punishment should not include food. Invent other effective ways of education.
- Do not support a "clean dish policy".Watch for signs that the baby is hungry. Even babies who turn away from a bottle or breast, say that they are full. If the children are full, do not make them continue to eat. Remind yourself and the child that we should eat when hungry.
- Do not talk about "harmful products" and do not completely exclude all sweets and favorite treats from the children's menu. Children, most likely, will revolt and will on the contrary absorb large quantities of harmful products outside the home when parents do not see it.
The child is not easy to motivate for the result, it can not be "planted" on a diet. In turn, adolescence is complicated by the fact that there is a danger of self-rejection, isolation, depression, anorexia. After you find out if your child needs weight correction, we would like to give some additional recommendations for children of all ages:
- From birth to 1 year of : in addition to the well-known multilateral health benefits, breastfeeding can also help prevent excessive weight gain. And although the exact mechanism has not yet been established, children who are breastfed feel their hunger and satiety more clearly, thus protecting themselves from overeating.
- From 1 to 5 years : to develop useful habits better from an early age. Help the child to establish the right food preferences, offering him a variety of healthy foods. Encourage the child's natural propensity for activity and help him develop.
- From 6 to 12 years old : support the child's physical activity every day. Let it be a sports section or outdoor games in the yard. Encourage activity and home - in everyday homework and in joint games and walks on weekends. Teach your child to choose healthy and healthy foods, help him to collect his own sandwiches in school.
- From 13 to 18 years old : teenagers often tend to fast food, but try to push them to a healthier meal. For example, to sandwiches with baked chicken meat, salads and smaller portions. Teach them to cook at home delicious healthy food and goodies. Help them maintain their physical activity every day.
- All ages : shorten the time spent by the child in front of the TV, computer and video games. Fight with the habit of the child is by looking at the TV or computer monitor. Try to cook and offer the child a variety of healthy foods. Try to have breakfast, lunch and dinner with the child together. Encourage children to eat vegetables and fruits at least five times a day, limit sweet drinks and never skip breakfast.
If you eat right, often go in for sports and include healthy habits in the everyday life of your family, you build a healthy lifestyle for your children, which they can continue to support. Explain to them the importance of physical activity and proper nutrition, but make it your general family habit, so that it becomes the second nature of each of you.
But first of all, let your children know that you love them regardless of their weight, and your main desire is to help them to be happy and healthy.
Source: the author of the article author Zaiko LA as a practicing psychologist, a member of the council of the commission on bioethics from the site