- Causes of pathology
- Classification of the disease
- Symptoms and signs
- Treatment of salivary gland adenoma
- Prognosis of the disease
- Related Videos
The adenoma of the salivary gland is a benign neoplasm formed from cells of glandular epithelium. The most commonly diagnosed tumors of the parotid salivary gland. This can be as a single entity, or including several nodes.
The pathology can develop both in men and in women. But the latter is detected somewhat more often. According to statistics, the parotid gland adenoma occurs in about 2% of all diagnosed cases.
The most common tumor is formed in people aged 50-70 years. It refers to benign formations, has clear boundaries, an oval or a regular round shape. Bilateral defeat is rare.
Causes of pathology
The true causes of the disease to doctors are not known. But there are several factors that can become an indirect circumstance of its development.
- direct injury to the ear or the existing inflammatory processes - epidemic parotitis, sialadenitis;
- predisposition at the genetic level - physicians have advanced the theory that a mutating gene can be inherited;
- penetration into the body of pathogenic microorganisms capable of provoking the consolidation of glandular tissues;
- disorders of hormonal nature can cause changes in the structure of healthy tissues, correcting their qualitative composition;
- influence of negative external factors - highly dosed multiple exposure, frequent radiography of the brain;
- smoking - nicotine gums disrupt the production of saliva, causing increased dryness of the oral mucosa;
- poor nutrition - as a result of a deficiency in the body's necessary substances, a violation occurs in the process of saliva secretion;
- occupational diseases - quite often salivary gland adenoma is detected in workers of metallurgical, chemical and woodworking enterprises. Its development is caused by the toxic effects of industrial waste.
So it looks like a benign tumor of the salivary gland, the causes of the mutation of cells of the glandular tissue are not fully known to physicians
Classification of the disease
There are several varieties of adenoma.
The tumor slowly increases in size, but in the absence of treatment it can reach a considerable volume. It is defined as a dense formation with a bumpy surface. Feature - there is a possibility of rebirth.
It is formed from basaloid cells. In most cases, it is represented by several nodes. The risk of rebirth is minimal.
Small in volume education. It is asymptomatic. Removed only surgically. Does not cause complications.
It differs by a thin beam structure. It looks like small beads. It is formed from epithelial cells and is diagnosed in old age. It has clearly visible borders.
It comes from cells of lymphatic tissue. It grows slowly. Place of localization - behind the auricle.
Occurs only from cells of glandular tissue.
Symptoms and signs
The most common pleomorphic adenoma. Pathology can develop for a long time without mentioning yourself.
Specialist during the examination of the patient before the emergence of specific symptoms can determine the presence of an adenoma capsule
The disease manifests certain symptoms, depending on the location of the tumor. This may be pain, which manifests itself when the formation of significant dimensions, lesion of the facial nerve, clearly traced visually asymmetry of the face.
Also there is a bad mobility of the facial muscles from the affected side. If the tumor is located in the depth of the tissues, then swallowing disorders occur. A person's speech can also change.
To define a tumor by palpation it is possible already in the beginning of its formation. It will be felt as a solid neoplasm, and stand out against the background of healthy tissues. Adenolymphoma and polymorphic form can develop in the form of numerous nodes and combine, for example, with the submandibular salivary gland adenoma.
In rare cases, initially benign formation is reborn. The process accompanies the development of the following symptoms:
- formation of a clearer border;
- the severity of the structure;
- a rapid increase in the volume of the capsule;
- Detection of metastases in local lymph nodes.
At the initial examination, the doctor performs palpation (palpation) of the affected area. And only after that he appoints a survey. Diagnosis of the disease includes the following laboratory and instrumental studies:
- Blood test. It is necessary to obtain information about the general state of the organism;
- CT scan. Helps to obtain a visual image of the tumor and its internal structures;
- Sialografiya. X-ray examination using contrast. Allows you to determine the shape and current size of the adenoma;
- Radiography of the skull. The detection of deformation of the cranium indirectly indicates the presence of a tumor;
- Ultrasound examination. Allows you to visualize the compaction, clarify the location of its localization, as well as the degree of germination in the surrounding healthy tissues;
- Puncture. The intake of the liquid contents of the capsule for its further investigation. It is necessary to determine the structure of the adenoma;
- Biopsy. Tissue tissue removal neoplasm to determine the type of tumor;
- Cytology. Used to study the cells of education.
The ultrasound picture clearly shows the nodal neoplasm in the salivary gland
Based on the results obtained, a decision is made on the type of treatment.
Treatment of salivary gland adenoma
In the case of an acute form, medication is prescribed. It includes drugs from the category of antibiotics, painkillers. Additionally, it is recommended to take medications that stimulate the production of saliva. To rule out the development of complications, anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed.
In addition, physiotherapy procedures are prescribed: electrophoresis, laser therapy, UHF therapy. But most experts tend to a radical method of treatment - the removal of tumors - to minimize the risk of recurrence of pathology.
How is the operation? The procedure includes several stages:
- An incision is made in the area of the tumor.
- After opening the capsule of the adenoma, it is dissected.
- Next, the capsule is emptied, and its contents are transferred for histological examination.
- Then the surgeon carefully sits the emptied capsule to exclude the formation of the salivary fistula. The technique of layer-by-layer suturing is used.
Treatment of the adenoma of the salivary glands in most cases involves the surgical extraction of the capsule
During the operation, the external cavity incision is performed in such a way that, in detecting the malignant process, the surgeon has the possibility of deeper opening of the cervical region.
Complications after removal of the tumor occur, but relatively rare. It can be paralysis of the facial nerve, mimicry disorders, fistula formation. They are caused, as a rule, by insufficient qualification and experience of the operating surgeon. Relapses of the disease are likely, but not infrequent.
Prognosis of the disease
The prognosis for salivary gland adenoma is quite optimistic. Especially in the event that the process of rebirth has not yet begun. Qualitatively performed treatment extends life to a person for 10-15 years.
If the problem is ignored and the benign tumor changes to a malignant, five-year survival limit passes (depending on the stage of cancer):
- Stage 1 - approximately 80% of operated patients;
- Stage 2 - not more than 60%;
- Stage 3 - only 42%;
- Stage 4 - less than 25% of all diagnosed cases.
In time the diagnosed pathology and the spent treatment allow a person to lead a habitual way of life
In the absence of treatment, death occurs within 1-3 years after the transition of adenoma to cancer education. Prevention of the disease as such is absent. Doctors give only general recommendations - the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle and a balanced diet that includes the substances necessary for humans.