Complete characterization of transmural infarction

click fraud protection

From this article you will learn: what pathology is called transmural infarction, than it differs from other types of infarction. How does pathology develop, where ischemic foci are localized? The main causes of the onset and stage of the infarct, the methods of diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis for recovery.

  • Article content:
    • The mechanism of the disease
    • Localization of the infarction
    • Causes of the onset
    • Infarction stages
    • Symptoms
    • Diagnosis
    • Treatment
    • Forecast

    Transmural myocardial infarction - what is it? This is the term acute shortage of the blood supply to the heart, leading to the development of end-to-end necrosis( death of cardiomyocytes) of the heart muscle.

    The cardiac muscle( myocardium) consists of several layers of cardiomyocytes( muscle cells capable of carrying a bioelectric pulse and to contraction) and is covered by the outer( endocardium) and inner( epicardium) membrane. For various reasons( for example, with coronary artery atherosclerosis), its blood supply is disturbed, the amount of oxygen and nutrients necessary for the normal operation of cardiomyocytes is reduced to such an extent that they quickly die( within the next 20 minutes after the onset of the attack).

    instagram viewer

    After a while, the cardiomyocytes in the foci of necrosis disintegrate and are destroyed, the functional tissue is replaced by a scar from the connective tissue( fibrosis).The result is a life-threatening heart disorder( arrhythmia).

    In other types of infarction, certain layers of the myocardium are subject to necrosis, the foci are adjacent to the outer or inner shell( subepicardial and subendocardial) or located in the heart muscle( intramural).

    With transmural infarction, necrosis affects the entire myocardium, from the outer to the inner shell( through), and is considered the most severe form of the disease.

    Necrosis with transmural infarction

    Pathology is dangerous development:

    • life-threatening rhythm disturbances( ciliary arrhythmia);
    • cardiogenic shock( degree of ischemia, resulting in cardiac arrest in 90%);
    • aneurysms( thinning and protrusion of the walls of the heart) followed by rupture;
    • tamponades( hemorrhage into the cavity of the pericardial sac);
    • thromboembolism( clotting of the pulmonary artery by a blood clot).

    In 10% of cases, a primary attack of a transmural infarction results in a fatal outcome.

    Myocardial infarction can not be cured completely, the disease is accompanied by irreversible changes in the heart muscle( scarring), in which the functions( holding and contraction) are not restored.

    If a patient is suspected of having a myocardial infarction, the patient is hospitalized in an emergency procedure for cardiac recovery, later the cardiologist is supervising. It is possible to surgically eliminate the occlusion of the vessel( complete blockage of the blood channel), which supplies blood to the heart, cardiosurgeons.

    Occlusion of the vessel. Surgical elimination of occlusion

    Mechanism of development of the disease

    About 95% of all infarctions develop against the background of atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary arteries. In the thickness of the wall of a large vessel, which supplies the heart with blood( more often the coronary artery), a special protein-lipid formation is formed-an atherosclerotic plaque. This occurs against a background of metabolic disorders( hyperlipidemia, an increase in the amount of cholesterol).

    Under the influence of some pathological processes( changes in arterial pressure), the inner wall of the vessel is damaged, the contents of the plaque partially clogs its lumen, becomes an obstacle to blood flow( embolism with fat contents).

    Sometimes the process develops differently: thrombocytes and erythrocytes adhere to the damaged vascular wall, forming a clot - a thrombus, which rapidly increases in size and blocks the lumen of the vessel.

    The result is a serious disparity between the amount of blood flowing into the heart muscle and its needs.

    Blood clot, blocking the lumen of the vessel and disturbing the blood flow

    Localization of the infarction

    Localization of foci of necrosis depends on in which branch of the coronary arteries the blood flow was disturbed. This refinement is important for specialists, since it allows us to assume the nature of complications in the course of an unfavorable course of the disease.

    In this connection, the infarct is distinguished:

    1. The anterior( lateral) and lower( posterior) wall of the left ventricle, occurs most often( in 70%).Acute transmural myocardial infarction of the anterior myocardium on the ECG is diagnosed more easily than the lower( posterior) wall, its symptoms are more pronounced. The likelihood of complications in left ventricular infarction in the form of malignant arrhythmias( flutter and fibrillation), aneurysms, cardiac tamponades and rupture of the interventricular septum is several times greater than in other types of infarction.
    2. The right ventricle( it is difficult to diagnose the details due to complications with ECG leads), it is very rare in an isolated form, more often it combines with a posterior wall of the heart( in 25-20%).A typical complication is cardiogenic shock with a lethal outcome.
    3. The apex of the heart( rounded and pointed part, directed towards the abdominal cavity), proceeds heavily, the form is fraught with an aneurysm and ruptures of the interventricular septum.
    4. Interventricular septum is rarely found in isolated form, it is often combined with the lesion of the anterior or posterior wall of the myocardium. Pathology is fraught with the development of intracardiac thrombosis, septal ruptures, rhythm disturbances( ventricular fibrillation).
    5. of the Auricles( a rare species, from 1 to 17% of the total number of heart attacks), is characterized by rhythm disturbances( flutter and flicker, tachycardia, extrasystole).

    It is possible to distinguish the types of infarction depending on the localization of foci of necrosis only by the results of ECG, sometimes this is not possible even with the help of modern diagnostic methods, therefore the diagnosis marks the "unspecified localization".

    Causes of

    The immediate cause of myocardial infarction is the narrowing of the coronary artery channel by more than 70%, which causes the blood supply to the heart to be disturbed, and foci of necrosis are formed.

    Vascular narrowing provokes:

    • atherosclerotic lesion of vascular walls( in 90-95%);
    • thrombus formation and thrombosis;
    • increase in blood viscosity;
    • disease, accompanied by an increase in the number of platelets( tuberculosis);
    • critical vasospasms( provoked by dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, increased sensitivity of the vascular walls to vasoconstrictor substances);
    • autoimmune, infectious, allergic inflammation of the vascular walls( coronary);
    • birth defects of coronary vessels( critical stenosis, narrowing);
    • trauma of the chest( mechanical pressing, clamping);
    • postoperative complications( after bypass, angioplasty).

    Together with the immediate causes that affect coronary blood flow, the following risk factors affect the development of the pathological process( damage to vascular walls, impaired sensitivity, permeability):

    • disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism( diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia);
    • arterial hypertension;
    • age( after 50 years);
    • heredity( the presence of close relatives with diseases of the cardiovascular system);
    • smoking;
    • constant nervous tension;
    • physical inactivity;
    • enhanced physical activity;
    • chronic alcoholism;
    • obesity;
    • dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system( disruption of the sympathetic and parasympathetic department, responsible for the regulation of autonomic processes - respiration).

    In men from 40 to 55 years old, myocardial infarction is diagnosed more often than in women, after 60 statistics are leveled.

    The development of pathology contributes to an unbalanced diet, poor in amino acids( protein food), potassium and magnesium( necessary for normal operation of the heart).

    20 Best products for healthy heart

    Infarction stages

    There are several stages( or periods) of development of transmural infarction:

    1. A prodromal( previous) stage characterized by a seizure or attack of angina( myocardial ischemia as a result of narrowing of the coronary arteries) and can last from 30 minutes to a month.
    2. The sharpest period is accompanied by marked signs of a heart attack( pain, sweating, weakness, fear of death) and the rapid formation of foci of necrosis( begins 20 minutes after an attack of ischemia and takes 4-6 hours).In this case, an acute transmural myocardial infarction of the left ventricular myocardium can be asymptomatic.
    3. Scars( 10-12 days) begin to form in the acute period in the place of foci of necrosis.
    4. In the subacute period, which takes up to 4.5 months, the signs of a heart attack gradually fade, the heart adapts to new conditions( disturbances of excitability and conductivity of tissues due to scar formation).
    5. In the post-infarction period, there are no significant manifestations of an infarction( except in cases when complications develop, for example, autoimmune syndrome Dressler).

    Transmural infarction( like any other) can be acute( no more than 28 days after the onset of an attack), repeated( the time between attacks is more than 28 days) and recurrent( repeated for 28 days).

    Symptoms of

    Transmural myocardial infarction is most often large-scale, extensive( necrosis takes up a large part of the myocardium, & gt; 50%), so all the symptoms of acute and acute period are more pronounced than in other types of pathology.

    At the time of the attack, the patient is temporarily disabled, experiencing severe pain( 95% behind the sternum), any physical exertion at this time may cause an increase in ischemia and necrosis, and rest and bed rest are recommended for prompt recovery.

    In a subacute period( up to 2 months) the activity is slowly restored, although any physical activity is limited( it is not recommended to lift weights, actively move, climb stairs, etc.).

    Restriction of physical activity with extensive transmural infarction without complications is valid for up to a year, and in the future depends on the patient's condition and the recommendations of the attending physician.

    It is common to divide heart attacks into 2 groups - typical( 95%) and atypical( 5%).

    Symptoms of a typical heart attack Symptoms of an atypical infarction
    Severe, intense, sharp, pressing pain behind the sternum( poorly quenched with nitroglycerin) Acute abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting
    Painful "echo" in the left arm, lower jaw, under the scapula, cervical spinespine, imitation of acute toothache Signs of impaired brain activity( confusion, dizziness, fainting)
    Weakness A sharp drop in blood pressure( usually preceded by cardiogenic shock)
    Sweating The attack starts with asthma resembling bronchial asthma accompanied by an unproductive, dry cough
    Nervous arousal, fear of death Appearance of swelling, development of ascites( filling with abdominal fluid)
    Arrhythmia( tachycardia)
    Pale skin
    Bluishness of fingertips, nose,lips
    Weak pulse filling

    Sometimes, in a heart attack, typical and atypical symptoms( combined form) are combined.

    Transmural myocardial infarction is 10 times more likely than other( classical) varieties of pathology, complicated up to:

    • life-threatening arrhythmias( ciliated, paroxysmal, extrasystole);
    • stretching of walls( aneurysm), rupture of aneurysm, tamponade( hemorrhage into the cavity of the pericardial cardiac sac);
    • detachment of thrombus and thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery;
    • cardiogenic shock( a condition characterized by a sharp drop in all vital signs equivalent to cardiac arrest);
    • postinfarction complications( autoimmune syndrome Dressler with pulmonary manifestations - pleurisy).


    Diagnose myocardial infarction with the help of:

    • electrocardiography, which allows to determine the disturbances of myocardial stimulation, conduction and contraction, characteristic for the formation of foci of ischemia and necrosis( the infarction of the lower wall of the left ventricle is more difficult to diagnose than the anterior wall);
    • laboratory tests for troponin, myoglobin( increasing 6-4 hours after the attack), creatine phosphokinase( increased 10 hours after the attack).

    Coronary angiography is used to determine the location of stenosis or occlusion, which led to the development of myocardial ischemia.

    Treatment of

    Acute transmural myocardial infarction can not be completely cured, myocardial necrosis and its replacement with a connective tissue is an irreversible process.

    Drug treatment can be divided into 2 stages:

    1. Provision of emergency care at the time of an attack.
    2. Elimination of consequences of myocardial ischemia, prevention of post-infarction complications and relapse.

    At the time of the attack the patient needs emergency hospitalization. The help that can be provided by others before the arrival of the team of doctors is to calm feverish activity and give the patient 2 tablets of nitroglycerin with an interval of 20 minutes.

    Medical treatment

    For the treatment of transmural infarction, the following groups of drugs are prescribed:

    • analgesics and vasodilating antispasmodics( droperidol, fentanyl) for pain relief;
    • antiarrhythmic, vasodilating agents( nitroglycerin, lidocaine) improve blood supply to the heart muscle;
    • adrenoblockers, ACE inhibitors( atenolol, diroton) prevent spasm and vascular response to various vasoconstrictors;
    • antithrombotic agents( heparin, plavix, quarantil) dissolve the thrombus that caused occlusion, improve blood flow, regulate the number of platelets and their aggregation( the ability to form clots, stick together).

    In addition, they use the means to regulate the level of lipids, glucose, blood pressure and other associated pathologies.

    As a surgical method of treatment, in the first hours after the attack, balloon angioplasty( dilatation of the lumen of the vessel with a catheter with a balloon at the end) or introduction of thrombolytics( streptokinase) into the vascular bed, which rapidly dissolve the clot.


    Treatment of a heart attack without complications takes a period of 4.5 to 5 months, the recovery period can last more than a year. It depends on the age, the patient's condition and the severity of the ischemic attack.

    Transmural infarction is one of the most severe, usually extensive( more than 50% of the entire myocardium is subject to necrosis), therefore the contractile capacity of the heart is restored longer than in other species. On the first day, about 15% of patients die from cardiogenic shock, fibrillation and fibrillation of the ventricles.

    A well-tolerated heart attack in 80% results in the development of heart failure( impaired contraction, ejection force, lack of blood supply to organs and tissues).

    Uncomplicated myocardial infarction has a chance of recurrence, complicated deteriorates the prognosis and in 70% leads to death due to the development of pulmonary embolism, cardiac asthma, ruptures due to an aneurysm or serious rhythm disturbances( fibrillation and ventricular fibrillation).

Sign Up To Our Newsletter

Pellentesque Dui, Non Felis. Maecenas Male