- Types of diffuse gastritis
- What causes inflammation
- How does gastritis develop
- Video on topic
With diffuse gastritis, inflammation affects almost the entire mucous organ, and most of all the antrum, in which the acidic contents of the stomach should be alkalinized toentering the intestine.
The pathological process leads to a rise in the acidity of the gastric juice, since hydrochloric acid is not neutralized by bicarbonates. The disease provokes atrophy of glandular cells, which can cause the formation of a malignant tumor.
Types of diffuse gastritis
Depending on the clinical picture, several types of diffuse gastritis are distinguished:
With superficial diffuse gastritis, the inflammation affects only the superficial layers of the gastric mucosa and there are no lesions. The symptomatology of the disease is not pronounced, but the patient learns about gastritis during a survey conducted due to a treatment on another issue.
Chronic diffuse gastritis is considered the second stage of pathology, since the inflammatory process affects not only the surface layer, but also deep. The patient complains of discomfort after eating, attacks of nausea, painful sensations at the top of the abdomen. The gastric mucosa undergoes atrophic and dystrophic processes.
With subatrophic gastritis, mucosal cells change and are no longer able to perform their functions, since the lesions in them are significant. In most cases this type of gastritis develops as a result of inadequate therapy of atrophic gastritis.
With antral diffuse gastritis, the inflammation covers the pyloric part of the stomach. In this part of the body alkalization of chyme is carried out, and with gastritis this does not happen and the acidic content penetrates into the intestines, which provokes the formation of expressions.
Because of what occurs inflammation
Most patients with gastritis in the stomach show the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. It prefers a pH of 4 to 6, although it is able to maintain activity in a more acidic environment. It is harmful to the bacteria if the acidity of the gastric juice is reduced.
The microorganism is able to wait for unfavorable conditions and becomes active when the environment for it is again comfortable.
Helicobacter in the process of life releases enzymes that destroy the protective membrane of the stomach( mucin), exposing the mucous membrane. For example, urease turns urea into ammonia and the environment around the bacterium becomes more alkaline.
Mucinase makes mucin less viscous, which allows the microorganism to reach the antral epithelium of the stomach. When the pyloric department stops synthesizing bicarbonates, which alkalize the medium, because of the gland failure, the acidity of the gastric juice increases, which leads to damage to the entire mucous organ( erosive, atrophic gastritis).
Not all people who have an acid-fast bacterium suffer from gastritis, so it is believed that the combination of several provoking factors is necessary for the development of the inflammatory process. The activity of the glands of the stomach is adversely affected by:
- malnutrition( consumption of fatty, spicy, fried foods, lack of a meal schedule, overeating or starvation);
- stress, overwork, lack of sleep( the work of the autonomic nervous system that regulates the acidity of gastric juice and motor system of the digestive system is disrupted);
- smoking, drinking alcohol;
- drug therapy.
How is gastritis manifested
At the initial stage of the disease there are no expressed symptoms, the inflammation can be seen only visually during fibroadastroscopy. Gradually, the deeper layers of the mucosa are involved in the pathological process and digestion in the stomach slows down, which leads to different kinds of disorders.
The development of diffuse chronic gastritis is indicated by the following symptoms:
- painful sensations, which gradually become longer and more intense. Soreness occurs after eating fatty, fried or spicy food;
- nausea. After vomiting, there is relief, however, soon the symptom appears again;
- weight loss. Since the stomach tissues are atrophied, the absorbent function of the organ is impaired and the patient loses nutrients.
When lesions of the antral part of the stomach appear pain after 1.5-2 hours after a meal or the so-called hungry pains
With a subatrophic form of gastritis, the clinic is more pronounced:
- appears severe heartburn, which is difficult to eliminate even with medicines;
- often after a meal, belching is sour;
- feels discomfort and tenderness in the epigastric region;
- on the background of impaired digestion increased gas production;
- often causes diarrhea or constipation;
- worsens vision;
- marked by dizziness, sweating, increased fatigue.
In the presence of inflammatory factors, gastritis from the acute form passes into the chronic, and then into the subatrophic one. In the absence of adequate and timely therapy, the disease can cause the development of the following diseases:
- reflux gastritis .Because of the increased acidity, the work of the gatekeeper, which does not allow the contents of the stomach to enter the overlying part of the digestive tract, is disrupted. When hydrochloric acid is thrown into the esophagus, the mucosa of the esophageal tube is covered with ulcers and erosions, and the organ itself can begin to gradually contract and not allow food to enter the stomach;
- peptic ulcer .Because of necrosis of the gastric mucosa, erosion is formed on the surface of the epithelium, which does not externally differ from the surrounding tissue, and its bottom is covered with fibrin. If unfavorable factors continue to affect for three days, then the erosion is transformed into an ulcer, that is, the inflammation spreads beyond the muscular plate of the mucosa. If the therapy is started within two weeks, the ulcer will heal, otherwise the disease will change into a chronic form;
- malignant tumor .The degeneration of the cells of the mucous tissue of the stomach can begin both against a background of chronic gastritis and against the background of peptic ulcer. At the first stage of the cancer there is no symptomatology. Pain, heaviness in the abdomen, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite appear when the swelling is already blocked by the pylorus. Another feature of stomach cancer is that it quickly metastasizes and affects the pancreas, lungs, liver, small intestine, lymph nodes.
Chronic ulcer in case of exacerbation of the disease increases in diameter and deepens, which can lead to its perforation or gastric bleeding
To shorten the duration of treatment for diffuse gastritis, the doctor should be treated immediately as soon as there are stomach pains, if you postpone the visit to the gastroenterologist, The process deepens and spreads, capturing an ever larger portion of the mucosa.
Discomfort in the stomach should make you reconsider your diet and exclude all heavy food from it. In case of inflammation of the gastric mucosa( gastritis, peptic ulcer), a therapeutic table No1 is prescribed, which requires all kinds of shining of the gastrointestinal tract. The diet helps to ensure the functional rest of the digestive organs and give time to the mucosa for regeneration.
Thermal shaking involves eating food at a temperature of 15 to 55 degrees, because cold foods stimulate the motility of the stomach, and hot, on the contrary, reduce. Mechanical shaking of the stomach is provided by eating only mashed, liquid dishes from foods in which there is no coarse fiber.
All dishes must be steamed or boiled. By chemical exclusion means the exclusion from the diet of substances that can excite the secretion of hydrochloric acid and trypsin, as well as components that irritate the stomach tissue.
During an acute gastritis it is impossible to eat rich broths, pasta, legumes, vegetables, berries, fruits, fatty meat, smoked and fried dishes, sauces. The patient can use porridge, mucous soups, lean meat, eggs, cooked soft-boiled.
Compliance with a strict diet is necessary until the disappearance of the clinical symptoms of the disease
After the disappearance of the pain syndrome patient is transferred to a diet that prevents the occurrence of a relapse( it must be adhered to 3-5 months).It is advisable to eat liquid or kashetseobraznoy, the dishes are steamed, boiled or baked without crust.
It is allowed to have vegetable soups, non-broth broths, vegetables, cereals, dietary meat, flour products, fruit purees in the diet. Diet with gastritis is the main therapeutic measure, and taking medication allows you to quickly stop the symptoms of the disease and temporarily reduce or neutralize the acidity of the gastric juice.
The success of treatment of diffuse gastritis will depend on whether it will be possible to establish the cause of the disease and whether it is possible to eliminate the provoking factor. When prescribing drug therapy, the doctor takes into account the symptoms and the degree of inflammation.
When diffuse gastritis is prescribed:
- antibacterial drugs;
- carminative products;
- antidiarrheal drugs;
As part of complex therapy can be used infusions and decoctions, offered by folk medicine, which have enveloping or anti-inflammatory effect. However, before taking them, you should consult your doctor.
It should also be remembered that herbs can cause allergic reactions, and they act not only on the digestive tract, but can also cause changes, for example, from the cardiovascular, urinary system, so when using them you need to take into account the state of the whole organism.
In case of diffuse gastritis, you can use the following recipes:
- make a collection of mint( 1 spoon), cumin seeds( one third spoon), ayr root( 1 spoonful), plantain and St. John's wort( 2 spoons), pour 400 ml of boiling water and let it brewwithin 12 hours. Take infusion should be two spoons daily in the mornings, for 30 days. The drug effectively removes pain and heartburn;
- licorice root, fennel, root of calamus, linden flowers and mint mixed in equal proportions. Spoon collection pour a glass of water and bring to a boil, leave to infuse for 3 hours. Drink broth in the morning on an empty stomach and before going to bed. It helps to cope even with severe pain in the stomach, lowers acidity;
- linseed oil envelops the walls of the stomach and protects them from the corrosive effects of hydrochloric acid and trypsin. You need to take butter on a teaspoon before eating. The course lasts 30 days. He will relieve pain and decoction from flax seeds( pour 5 spoons of flax seeds into a glass, boil for 20 minutes and drink as soon as the product cools);
- decoction of chamomile has anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, regenerating, antimicrobial, analgesic effect. Also, the plant suppresses nausea and reduces the severity of heartburn, stimulates bile secretion, increases appetite. To prepare the broth, take a spoon of dried inflorescences on a glass of boiling water, the liquid is heated in a water bath for 30 minutes, and then infused for 3-4 hours. Drink the drug you need half a cup three times a day before eating.
A good habit is to drink chamomile tea, as it soothes intestinal mucosa and stomach
The sooner the treatment of diffuse gastritis begins, the faster it will be to cope with the disease. Therefore, you need to consult a doctor as soon as there is discomfort in the stomach, even if it is mild and passes by itself. If the digestive system is disturbed, a diet is prescribed, which must be observed for 2-3 months, but to avoid a relapse it is necessary to adhere to a healthy diet throughout life.