The will is that part of a person's consciousness that acts and regulates. The will is able to create an effort and keep it as long as necessary. This concept cuts in itself the ability of a person on its own initiative
from the conscious need to plan and implement actions, even organize and direct mental activity.
The concept of will implies a clearly defined and extremely important personal power in a person, which consists of a set of specific qualities that are fully capable of development in the process of both spontaneous and special training.
In the psychology of the will, its main functions are distinguished by the following:
- Choosing motives, goals, setting tasks.
- Regulation of incentives for actions when their motivation is insufficient or excessive.
- Mental processes will organize the system into a system that is adequate to the activities performed.
- Shrinkage in the unity of physical and mental abilities in the face of obstacles in achieving the goal.
The will directs or restrains human actions. Development of strong-willed qualities and upbringing and development of the will can be viewed on the corresponding page.
The will to win
Whatever goal we set, a good and creative goal is always clean, warms the whole world, makes it better, cleaner and gives hope to the whole world. Let's set bright goals. And materialize them. Create. To conquer all that leads to destruction.
Structure of the volitional act
For a long time the thinkers were occupied with the question: what is the volitional act? In the analysis and generalization of all discussed options, two aspects of the will were singled out.
So, the structure of the volitional act consists of the formation of motivation and realization of the conceived. The formation of motivation is associated with the motivational sphere of the individual, and the realization of the conceived is tied to the implementation of actions and control over them.
In the structure of the volitional act, the domestic psychologist Lange Nikolay Nikolaevich( 12.03.1858 - 15.02.1921) distinguished 4 phases:
- Foreseeing the goal.
- Motion imagination.
- Direct movement.
Similarly, the Russian largest psychologist and philosopher Sergei Leonidovich Rubinstein( 06.06.1889 - 11.01.1960), in the notion of will and structure of the volitional act, distinguished four parts:
- Actualization of motivation and the formation of the goal.
- The struggle of motives and their discussion.
- Deciding on action planning.
- Immediate execution of the planned action.
Viktor Ivanovich Selivanov( 07.07.1906 - September 27, 1996), a domestic psychologist and pedagogue, distinguished three stages in the structure of an arbitrary act:
- The formation of the goal of the action.
- Planning the execution of the action on the mental level.
- Direct execution of an action.
Roberto Assagioli( 27.02.1888 - 23.08.1974), an Italian psychologist, psychiatrist and humanist( founder of psychosynthesis), identifies 6 stages:
- Awareness of the goal, its evaluation, the origin of motivation based on the assessment.
- Contemplation, or meditation.
- Choose from several goals one.
- Approving your choice.
- Drawing up a program of their actions, taking into account available funds.
- Perform action.
The German psychologist Hekhausen Heinz( 1926 - 1988) in the structure of the volitional act singled out the materialization of intention. This process he divided into 4 phases: preparatory, preactional, active and post-institutional. The first two phases are motivation, the latter are will.
When we are preparing - we are considering different options for our future actions, then a motivation for action is formed. Before the action, that is, in the pre-institutional phase, we wait for the right moment and necessary circumstances in order to decide on some action or abandon it. Next, we implement the implementation and achieve the result of our actions.
So, in principle, we considered the concept of will and structure of the volitional act from different positions and opinions of authoritative scientists.
The psychology of E.P. Ilyin's will
There is a good textbook addressed to psychologists, physiologists, teachers and students of psychological and pedagogical institutes of higher education. The book of the domestic doctor of psychological sciences, professor
of the Russian State Pedagogical University. AI Herzen, Ilyin Evgenii Pavlovich( 20.03.1933), "Psychology of Will", it will also be useful for ordinary people interested in a positive resolution of psychological problems.
The textbook of EP Ilyin "Psychology of the Will" is devoted to theoretical and practical study of volitional processes. Here, a deep analysis of various representations - scientific, philosophical, psychological, physiological - about the emotional-volitional sphere of man and such a concept as "willpower" was carried out. The laws of the development of the will, its manifestation in the behavior and activity of man, as well as its pathological abnormalities, are described.
The book "Psychology of the Will" systematically presents the psychodiagnostic methods of investigating the will, which can be used in psychological, pedagogical and sports practice, the production and organizational sphere.
There are numerous theory of will, which are considered in the textbook of EP Il'in. The sphere of arbitrary control of human behavior and activity and their psycho-physiological mechanisms, the structure of an arbitrary, that is, volitional act, are highlighted in detail.
The ideas about arbitrary actions, their conscious initiation, the idea of independent control and independent mobilization of physical, psychological and energy resources of the organism are stated.
Separate chapters in "Psychology of the Will" by EP Il'in are devoted to the strong-willed qualities of personality, they are classified, characteristics of some qualities of will are carried out. Changes in will qualities in connection with age changes are analyzed and their difference is made relative to gender.
Describes in detail the behavior of a person in the absence of will, the very state of lack of will-laziness and, so-called "learned helplessness".And also, volitional violations - pathologies of the will.
The last chapters of the textbook are devoted to the development of strong-willed qualities and methods of investigation of strong-willed strength.
In general, you can recommend this excellent and complete tutorial for all those who want to get a lot of interesting information at once and from one source.