Non-profit organization: NGO activities, forms, features, example of socially-oriented NGOs


Which organization is non-profit?

If the organization does not have profit as its main objective and does not distribute the profit among its participants, suchorganizationis annon-profit! Such definition of non-commercial organizations is given in Article 50 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation.

NCOsIs a shortened abbreviation of the generalized nature of the term "non-profit organizations". What is this and the transcript, I think you will understand.

I will give an example of what will be called a social (socially-oriented) autonomous non-profit organization (full name and abbreviated name):Autonomous non-profit organization of social support for the family "FAMILY", orANO SPS "Family".

There is an opinion that non-profit organizations perform social functions more effectively than the state. In this sense, non-profit organizations that perform certain functions of the state or self-government bodies, but do not resort to the assistance of state authorities and local self-government, are callednongovernmental.

Why are non-profit organizations established?

Non-profit organizations are different, because they can be created to achieve:

  1. social, charitable, cultural, educational, political, scientific and management purposes,
  2. in the spheres of health protection of citizens,
  3. development of physical culture and sports,
  4. satisfaction of spiritual and other non-material needs of citizens,
  5. protection of rights, legitimate interests of citizens and organizations,
  6. resolution of disputes and conflicts, provision of legal assistance,
  7. as well as for other purposes aimed at achieving public goods.

Non-profit organizations have the right to engage in entrepreneurial activities only if this activity is aimed at achieving the organization's goals.

What are NPOs in Russia: types, forms of non-profit organizations

In the Russian Federation, there are more than thirty types / forms of non-profit organizations. Some of them differ only in the name, having similar functions.

The main forms of non-profit organizations are established byCivil Code of the Russian Federationin paragraph 6 of Chapter 4, and7-FZ "On non-profit organizations". However, apart from these two acts, there are more than twenty other laws regulating the specific activities of other NPOs.

Grants received from Russian non-profit organizations from foreign charitable organizations are not taxed.

Since 2008, special grants of the President of Russia have been allocated to support NGOs.

In 2008-2013, 8 billion rubles were allocated from the budget to support NGOs, The majority of grants were received by organizations controlled by existing or former members of the Public Chamber.

November 20, 2012 The new law of the Russian Federation on NGOs ("the law on foreign agents") came into force, the corresponding amendments to the Civil Code of the Russian Federation were made on February 12, 2013.

May 23, 2015 President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin signed the law on the register of undesirable organizations. According to the law, a foreign or international non-governmental organization that "poses a threat to the foundations of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation, the country's defense capability and the state's security" can be considered undesirable.

November 4th, 2015 the President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin, signed a law that increases four times - up to one year - the statute of limitations on administrative cases concerning violation of the procedure for the activities of non-governmental organizations "foreign agents".

April 3, 2017, President Vladimir Putin signed an order No. 93-rp "On the provision in 2017 of state support for non-profit non-governmental organizations involved in the development of civil society institutions that implement socially significant projects and projects in the field of protecting human and civil rights and freedoms ".

Distribution of funds deals with a specially created Fund-operator of presidential grants for the development of civil society (Fund of presidential grants). To ensure that in 2017, state support for non-profit organizations allocated 4.32 billion. rubles.

Types of non-profit organizations:

  1. Autonomous non-profit organization.
  2. University.
  3. Lawyer education (bar association, lawyers' bureau and legal advice).
  4. Association and union (including exchange).
  5. Charitable organization.
  6. Garage-building cooperative.
  7. State Corporation.
  8. The state company.
  9. State and municipal autonomous, budgetary and public institution.
  10. National Park, Nature Park, State Nature Reserve.
  11. Cossack society.
  12. Housing and construction cooperative.
  13. Non-commercial partnership.
  14. Non-governmental organization.
  15. Condominium, HOA, LC, GK.
  16. Public association (Political party, public organization (including disabled people), social movement, public fund, public institution, public initiative body, Trade Union).
  17. Mutual Insurance Company.
  18. Associations of legal entities.
  19. Association of employers.
  20. Community of Indigenous Minorities.
  21. Consumer cooperatives (including the Credit Consumer Cooperative (citizens, first and second level), Agricultural consumer cooperative (processing, marketing (commercial), serving, supply, horticultural, truck, livestock), Housing funded cooperative.
  22. Religious organization / association (religious organization (local and centralized), religious group).
  23. Horticultural, gardening or suburban non-profit association.
  24. Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
  25. Territorial public self-government (TOS).
  26. Institution (including private).
  27. Autonomous institution.
  28. Fund.
  29. UN.

Non-profit organization: characteristics of NGOs

Possible legal form of a non-profit organization: for public authorities - a state institution or a local government institution; for state organizations - non-profit. The founders may be the state or any persons.

Employed regular and attracted (paid and unpaid) human resources. Payment of human resources: staff - wages, commercial services contracted for the provision of services, but the services of volunteers (volunteers) are not paid.

The main objectives of NGOs: socially significant, including charitable, educational, religious, political, socio-economic and others.

Sources of financing: for NGOs, the founder of which is the state - the state budget; for non-state - borrowed capital, proceeds from commercial (entrepreneurial) activities (but with restrictions); investments, donations. Many NPOs (most often - partnerships of owners) operate only on membership fees and do not apply to other sources of funding. It is also possible to finance from grants (including public funds). Many NGOs (for example, scientific, cultural organizations) operate only on grants and do not turn to other sources of funding.

Features of non-profit organizations: differences from commercial

In the federal law of the Russian Federation No. 7-FZ of January 12, 1996 "On non-commercial organizations" it is determined that non-profit organizations are created to achieve social, charitable, cultural, educational, scientific and management purposes, protect citizens' health, develop physical culture and sports, meet spiritual and other immaterial needs of citizens and organizations, resolve disputes and conflicts, providing legal assistance, as well as for other purposes aimed at the acquisition of public goods.

The law has a general meaning and applies to all forms of non-profit organizations (except for consumer cooperatives and partly religious organizations).

Non-profit organizations can be created only in certain organizational and legal forms provided for by the current legislation. There are more than two dozen such forms.

Distinctive features of non-commercial organizations are their non-profit activities, orientation to social effect, the unavailability of adopting the form of a legal entity, restrictions in the procedure of bankruptcy.

Non-profit organizations function (as well as commercial ones) as legally independent and economically independent entities. They have property in their economic management. The material base of non-profit organizations can be formed by membership fees (consumer cooperatives), which are of a regular nature, voluntary contributions in the form of donations and grants are also possible.

Any non-profit organization is liable for its obligations with property in its ownership. However, the activities of non-profit organizations are not aimed at maximizing profits from the use of property, but on the implementation of a public mission, the achievement of certain social goals expressed in programs and projects.

At the same time, not all forms of non-profit organizations correspond to such a criterion as "no distribution of profit between participants".

For example, consumer cooperatives that are included in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation for non-profit organizations can distribute income received from entrepreneurial activity among their members. In connection with this, paragraph 3 of Art. 1 of the federal law "On non-profit organizations", and their activities in addition to the Civil Code are regulated by a number of special laws: the law of the Russian Federation of June 19, 1992. "On consumer cooperation (consumer societies, their unions) in the Russian Federation", the law of the Russian Federation of December 8, 1995. "On Agricultural Cooperation," the law of the Russian Federation of June 15, 1996. "On partnerships of homeowners", etc.

Legislatively non-commercial organizations are allowed to engage in entrepreneurial activities if the revenues from this activity are directed towards the goals for which they were created.

This activity for many non-profit organizations is forced and carried out to maintain normal working conditions. If it is necessary to expand business activities, non-profit organizations are entitled to participate in economic societies and investors in partnerships on faith, whose goals may not at all correspond to the goals of non-profit organizations.

A significant difference between commercial and non-commercial organizations is the possibility of their functioning without state registration. Legislation of the Russian Federation on non-profit organizations allows for the existence, without state registration, of certain varieties of public organizations, institutions, movements, foundations and public initiative bodies. In this case, the organizations function without having the rights of a legal entity and are not subjects of civil legal relationships (they can not have property or in operational management property, in their own name acquire and exercise property and non-property rights, bear obligations, be a plaintiff and defendant in court, have accounts in banks, printing).

Unlike commercial organizations, not all non-profit organizations may be subject to a bankruptcy procedure. Thus, in the federal law No. 127-FZ of October 26, 2002 "On insolvency (bankruptcy)" stipulated that the law does not apply to institutions, political parties and religious organizations. The peculiarity of the liquidation of non-commercial organizations is the lack of a mechanism for the division of property.

Despite the fact that non-profit organizations are created for an indefinite period, the federal law "On Non-Profit Organizations" allows the creation of an organization with a limited period of validity necessary to achieve its goals.

In other respects, non-commercial organizations are subject to the same requirements as commercial ones, for example, obtaining a license for certain activities. The effect of the federal law No. 128-FZ of August 8, 2001. "On licensing of certain types of activities" fully applies to non-profit organizations.

How to create a non-profit organization: NGOs

There are certain rules for registration, institutions, organizations, public associations, cooperatives in Russia.

To create a non-profit organization, you will need to prepare a package of documents established by 7-FZ - the Federal Law "On Non-Profit Organizations" and submit it to the authorized body for registration.

Registration is the analysis of documents, the adoption of a decision on registration, the introduction of information on a new non-profit organization in the Unified State Register of Legal Entities (EGRUL). On average, registration takes less than a month.

You will need

  1. a statement on the establishment of a non-profit organization;
  2. three copies of the constituent documents;
  3. the decision of the founders to establish a non-profit organization;
  4. information about the founders;
  5. a receipt for payment of the state registration fee;
  6. information on the address of the permanent body of a non-profit organization.

More in detail, step by step, how to create a non-profit organization you can here:

Example of social non-profit organizations: NGOs

I provide you with an up-to-date list of NGOs performing their activities in the Volgograd Region in 2017:

  1. Autonomous non-profit organization of social support for the family "FAMILY"
  2. Autonomous non-profit organization "Center for Assistance to the Population" Solnechny Dom "
  3. Autonomous non-commercial organization "Speech center" Discourse "
  4. Autonomous non-commercial organization "The winged swing"
  5. Autonomous non-profit organization of social service "Mercy"
  6. Autonomous non-profit organization of social support for the population "Golden Autumn"
  7. Autonomous non-profit organization of social services "Zabota"
  8. Charitable Foundation for the Support of Russian Culture "Sobornik"
  9. Volgograd Regional Public Charitable Foundation "Children in Need"
  10. Interregional Charitable Public Organization "Committee for the Protection of Civil Rights"
  11. Interregional public organization "Center for Family Law"
  12. Interregional Public Organization of Disabled Children "Scarlet Flower"
  13. Autonomous non-commercial organization of social services for the population "Opora"
  14. Branch "Living Heart" of the Fund for the Promotion of the Municipal Formation Volgograd city "Living City"
  15. Volgograd Regional Public Organization "LUCH" for providing social and pedagogical assistance to persons with disabilities
  16. Volgograd Regional Branch of the All-Russian Public Charitable Foundation "Russian Children's Fund"
  17. Autonomous non-profit organization Center for Social Services of Population "TRUST"
  18. Alisa Psychological consultative center (not registered name), legal IP Manuylova L.V.
  19. Interregional public organization "Credit Rights Defender"
  20. Public organization "Volgograd Regional Union of Women"
  21. Autonomous non-profit organization of social services "Territory of good"
  22. Volzhsky Public Charitable Foundation "Children in Need"
  23. Autonomous non-profit organization of social services "Blagodat"
  24. Autonomous non-profit organization of social services "Integration"
  25. Autonomous non-profit organization of social services "Assistance"

On this page you can find more detailed information about the activities of the NGO in the Governor's Portal of the Volgograd Region:, moreover, there you will see on the examples of living examples of documents to create an organization.

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