- Transmission routes and symptoms
- Types of research for the detection of the
- virus How to correctly pass a biological fluid to obtain accurate results
- Deciphering the results of the
- analysis How much analysis is done for hepatitis C
- Hepatitis C prevention
- Related videos
Hepatitis C is a serious infectious disease, damaging the liver and characterized by its destruction. If the virus enters the body, the probability of infection is 100%.The main ways of transmission of infection: sexual and transmissible.
For a long time the disease does not manifest itself in any way and is asymptomatic. Because of this, the sick person does not conduct any treatment, and the acute form of the disease very quickly passes into the chronic. Diagnosis of hepatitis C plays a big role in the life of any person. In time to recognize a serious disease, it is recommended to at least once a year to examine the blood from the vein.
Transmission routes and symptomatology
Source of the disease is a virus or a sick person. Hepatitis C virus can penetrate into the body of a healthy person in the following cases:
- during the manicure, piercing, tattooing with tools that have not been sterilized after a sick visitor;
- use of general personal care items( nail scissors, toothbrushes, shaving machines, etc.);
- addicts who use a single syringe for intravenous injections;
- during hemodialysis with the help of the device "artificial kidney";
- in the performance of any medical interventions and contact with biological fluids of the carrier or patient without personal protective equipment;
- for transfusion of contaminated blood or its components;
- during sexual contact without barrier contraception;
- from mother to child during labor or breastfeeding.
The risk of infection during medical manipulations persists even in developed countries. This is due to a violation of sanitary standards and negligence of medical personnel.
To prevent the transition of the disease to a chronic form, you need to pay attention to your health. Refer to a specialist if you have the following symptoms:
- soreness of large joints, without damage and injuries;
- general weakness, malaise, sleep disorder;
- in the acute stage yellow skin and mucous membranes, urine noticeably darkens;
- soreness and a feeling of heaviness in the right hypochondrium;
- nausea, vomiting without cause;
- increase in body temperature within 37-37.5 degrees during the day;
- skin rashes, reminiscent of allergy signs;
- decrease or loss of appetite, aversion to food;
- blood counts when the study changes.
Skin yellowness and sclera - a sign of the inflammatory process in the liver
All these signs do not mean that the body has a hepatitis virus in the body, it's all just an excuse to consult a doctor and be examined. Only after the received results the expert puts the diagnosis and appoints treatment. If there is a possibility, you can conduct a quick study at home and determine the presence of the virus.
Types of research for determining the virus
The blood test for hepatitis with 100% confidence is determined by the ELISA method. ELISA is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the addition of specific antibodies or antigens to the test blood, followed by the determination of the antigen-antibody complexes responding.
In case of a positive result, an additional blood test is performed - RIBA( recombinant immunoblotting).In addition, there is a PCR method that helps with the chain reaction to restore the hepatitis C virus RNA and determine the quantitative and qualitative composition of it. An analysis for the detection of the hepatitis C virus is carried out during pregnancy, before performing a surgical intervention, before donating blood.
If the study found a hepatitis C virus in the blood, then this study does not end? After all, blood indicators change when there is an infection in the body. What tests should I take as an adjunct?
After a positive result, the specialist will be assigned:
- a detailed general blood test;
- biochemical blood test;
- definition of the genotype of the virus;
- ultrasound of the abdominal cavity organs( in particular, the liver);
- definition of other types of hepatitis;
- blood for HIV infection;
- liver histology;
- if necessary to study the thyroid and autoimmune diseases.
Changes in the indices of venous blood - an indicator of the pathological process
The general blood test for hepatitis C will differ from those who do not have this pathology. What indicators change in the disease? Reducing the number of leukocytes will indicate the presence of a chronic infectious disease, in people taking antiviral complexes, there is an increase in ESR and a significant decrease in neutrophils.
How to properly deliver a biological fluid to obtain accurate results of
No more than 4-6 weeks after the last contact with the suspected patient, diagnostics for the carriage of hepatitis C.
No special preparation is required before the assay is given, blood is taken in the morningon an empty stomach. How much blood donation, urine for an accurate result?
Blood need not less than 5-6 ml, urine enough 10-15 ml. Biological material must be delivered to the laboratory on the day it is taken. Otherwise, there is a risk of receiving a false positive, erroneous or doubtful result.
In addition to blood, other bio-liquids can be sent for the presence of the virus: urine, saliva. All of them are also suitable for express tests, the analysis of hepatitis C is ready in 15-20 minutes. For this purpose, the ultra-sensitive OraQuick HCV Rapid Antibody Test is used.
It is very important to carry out the test at an air temperature of not more than 35 degrees.
. Decoding of the results of the analysis.
. There are more than 10 types of HCV in medicine, but to determine the diagnosis it is necessary to make the 5 most common ones. A blood test in the laboratory is performed by a qualified physician.
If a positive result has been established, the patient should urgently consult an infection specialist for advice and undergo an additional examination. Looking at the statistics, you can see that 4% of the population are infected with the hepatitis C virus. But do not be happy with small numbers, because many people do not give blood and do not even know about the terrible diagnosis.
Table indicating the decoding of hepatitis markers
|Markers of hepatitis||Reference value,||norm Resulting value|
Errors in the analyzes are almost not encountered, as the analyzes are carried out with modern equipment and reagents.
How much analysis is done for hepatitis C
Many are wondering, after what time will show a positive result? The average duration of the study is 5-7 days from the receipt of biological material in the laboratory. The timing of the outcome depends on the complexity of the analysis and the type of virus infection.
Express tests are performed within 20 minutes with a certainty of 98-99%.To do this, special tests are used that contain special substances that react with antibodies to hepatitis C. The test can be carried out at home, which is an advantage over laboratory diagnostics. You can buy it at the pharmacy, without any permits. Decipher the result will not be a problem.
In this case, the patient found antibodies to hepatitis C virus
Hepatitis C prevention
To avoid getting hepatitis C, one should adhere to simple rules:
- use the barrier method of contraception( condom) during intercourse;
- have personal personal care products: toothbrush / thread, razor, manicure tools, etc.;
- persons who are addicted to drug use do not take injecting drugs, the use of one syringe at all is topical among drug addicts;
- make vaccines against hepatitis A and B;
- in medical institutions to ensure that all injections are made only with disposable sterile tools and syringes;
- use manicure services only from a trusted master;
- medical personnel should also be vigilant and use personal protective equipment( mask, gloves, robe and others).
Preventing the disease is much easier than curing it. And hepatitis C is treated for a very long time, often the therapy does not give any result or there are various complications. What can I do if I have contact with a patient or a carrier? What are the preparations for emergency prevention called?
After contact with the carrier or a sick person, administer Ribaverin Medun and alpha interferon. In the case when the analysis shows the presence of the virus, it is necessary to protect the liver from excessive negative impact, so as not to worsen its condition.