Testosterone functions in the female body
The main male sex hormone testosterone is produced in the female body by the adrenal cortex and ovaries, a small percentage is produced in the epithelial tissue and placenta. The production of androgen is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary system, it participates in the regulation of such processes as:
- formation of skeletal bone tissue, ensuring its density.
- intensity of sexual desire;
- production of ova;
- maintenance of normal muscle volume;
- normalization of sexual function;
- formation of fat deposits;
- maintenance of skin tissue health;
- stability of the sebaceous glands;
- synthesis and decomposition of proteins, insulin;
- stabilization of the cardiovascular system;
- maintenance of basic cognitive functions;
- increased endurance and stress resistance;
- synthesis of lipoproteins;
- regulation of blood sugar.
The testosterone values in women fluctuate depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle, age, and also vary within one day( the lowest concentrations are recorded in the morning).The average daily rate for women from 13 to 50-55 years is considered the hormone content of 0.36-1.97 nmol / l. In pregnancy, the indicator can increase 4 times( gradually, to 3 trimester), in the menopause period - decrease to values of 0.28-1.22 nmol / l. For different phases of the menstrual cycle, changes in testosterone levels are as follows:
|Period of the menstrual cycle||Testosterone level|
|Follicle formation period( 1-7 day of the cycle)||0.45-3.75 nmol / l|
|Ovulation||0.46-3,18 nmol / l|
|Completion of menstruation( last day of bleeding)||0.29-1.73 nmol / l|
Symptoms of low testosterone
Low testosterone in women affects the emotional background of a woman and is reflected in her appearance. Typical symptoms that indicate low levels of this hormone are the following:
- decreased libido, sexual desire;
- formation of fat deposits on the abdomen, in the neck, arms;
- increase in brittleness of bones;
- malfunctions of the menstrual cycle;
- change voice timbre;
- skin dryness, thinning of epithelial tissues;
- hair deterioration;
- increased irritability, tearfulness, mood swings, apathy;
- increased fatigue;
- increased heart rate;
- increased sweating;
- sleep disorders;
- disorders of reproductive function, infertility;
- decreased cognitive function, memory impairment;
- reduction in muscle mass.
The decrease in testosterone in women occurs under the influence of many external or internal factors. The main causes of low androgen values are:
- Menopause, menopause.
- Dysfunction of the adrenal glands, hypophysis, hypothalamus.
- Disturbance of kidney function( kidney failure).
- Endocrine disorders.
- Tumors and other neoplasms in the ovaries.
- Removal of one or both ovaries( oophorectomy).
- Removal of one or both adrenal glands( adrenalectomy).
- Admission of some pharmacological agents( glucocorticoids, opioids, immunosuppressants).
- Down's syndrome and other genomic pathologies.
- Improper diet, regular diets or abuse of foods high in carbohydrates.
- Abuse of alcohol, smoking.
- Obesity, overweight.
The level of testosterone in the body of a woman is determined as a result of a laboratory study of venous blood. Fence material is carried out in the morning, on an empty stomach. Preliminary preparation for the analysis when suspicion of low testosterone is due to the following conditions:
- Refusal from smoking, drinking alcohol( 2-3 days before the examination).
- Refusal from intensive physical activity, sexual contacts on the eve of the analysis.
- Avoidance of excessive excitement and stress.
- Discontinuation of some pharmacological agents( eg barbiturates).
Collection of blood for analysis is performed on a certain day of the menstrual cycle. The best time is calculated by the attending physician based on the approximate average duration of each phase. When examining the obtained material, the parameters of the free form of the common hormone are studied, therefore, in addition to the testosterone values, the level of the globulin binding it is studied.
How to increase testosterone in the body
Comprehensive therapy, including correction of diet and lifestyle, phytotherapy, helps to correct low testosterone in women, in difficult cases - drug treatment with hormone replacement therapy. The general recommendations of endocrinologists and gynecologists are to fulfill the following conditions:
- Weight loss and weight control( with excess indices).
- Active way of life, but without exhausting physical exertion.
- Normalization of sleep, work and rest.
- Decreased level of daily stress.
- Discarding bad habits.
- Regular sexual contact.
Drugs containing testosterone, at a low level of the hormone can be taken only for the purpose of a specialist, strictly in accordance with the prescribed dosage and intake schedule. Hormone replacement therapy has a number of contraindications and many side effects, so self-treatment with low testosterone is unacceptable. All funds are issued in three basic forms of release - for oral, transdermal( subcutaneous) or injection use, the drugs of choice are Omnadren, Propionate and Parity.
Methods and means of traditional medicine for low testosterone in women recommend the use of traditional medicine. Increased attention is paid to diet therapy, the use of the following products:
- sources of zinc( seafood, nuts, poultry);
- olives and olive oil;
- sea fish( tuna, salmon);
- of legumes and cereals;
- sources of fiber.
The growth of low androgen levels is affected by decoctions or infusion of ginseng, nettle, aloe. With a mixture of the juice of these plants with honey, a product is obtained that not only raises the level of testosterone, but also strengthens immunity. For the preparation of therapeutic drinks, you can use one of the following recipes:
- Decoction of dried fruits of mountain ash and dogrose.3 tablespoonsdry berries pour a liter of boiling water in a thermos or stand on a water bath for 20-30 minutes. The drug is taken once or twice a day, instead of traditional tea or coffee, for 2-3 weeks.
- Ginger tea. Shredded root of ginger( 2-3 g) pour boiling water in a usual teapot( 0.5 liters), add a lemon slice, a tablespoon of honey. Use in the morning or in the daytime to 250 ml( the drink has a pronounced stimulating effect).
- Decoction of intoxicating cones. For 300 ml of boiling water, take 1 tbsp.cones, withstand the mixture on fire for 10-15 minutes. Take chilled, 100 ml, in the mornings and at night, for 2-3 weeks.
Consequences of low testosterone in women
Prolonged testosterone deficiency in women is fraught with negative consequences for health and well-being. The lowered emotional background and the overall low energy level in the first stages of inadequate hormone production in the absence of corrective measures can provoke the development of complications such as:
- endometriosis( hormonally dependent proliferation of the endometrium( glandular tissue) of the uterus;
- benign and malignant neoplasms in the mammary gland;
- cardiovascular system disorders;
In addition to the described diseases, against the background of low hormone levels in womensigns of premature aging develop, expressed in the following external manifestations:
- hair loss, loss of color, increased fragility;
- drying of the skin;
- formation of cellulite and subcutaneous fat deposits
- increased fragility of thin nail plates
The normal level of hormones is easily corrected and maintained by preventive measures. With a propensity for low testosterone, a woman should observe a number of simple lifestyle rules. Looking for:
- Weight control.
- Refusal from starvation and debilitating diets.
- Compliance with a full-fledged diet.
- Regular sexual activity.
- Maintenance of the optimum physical form, without hypodynamia and excessive loads.
- Avoiding stress, minimizing its level.
- Maintaining a healthy lifestyle( avoiding smoking, drinking alcohol).
- Complete rest and sleep.
Steroid hormone from the androgen testosterone group is produced in the body of a woman in smaller quantities than in the male( the level of indicators is 4-12 times lower).Moreover, it plays an important role in a number of metabolic processes, participates in the work of the reproductive system, ensures the stability of the emotional background and the performance of cognitive functions. Deviations from the norm threaten a number of negative consequences for women's health, therefore, when clinical signs of low testosterone appear, it is necessary to seek medical help.