1Hypoplasia of the right or left vertebral artery - what is it and what does it threaten?
- 1.1general information
- 1.2Causes and risk factors
- 1.3What is the difference between right-sided hypoplasia and left-sided hypoplasia?
- 1.4Danger and consequences
- 1.5Symptoms and signs
- 1.6When should I see a doctor?
2Hypoplasia of vertebral arteries
- 2.1What is hypoplasia?
- 2.2Compensatory mechanisms that delay the manifestation of pathology
- 2.3Are there any reliable symptoms?
- 2.4How is hypoplasia revealed?
- 2.6When is the surgical treatment indicated?
- 2.7How is fitness determined for military service?
3Causes, symptoms and treatment of hypoplasia of the right vertebral artery
- 3.1Causes of hypoplasia of the right vertebral artery
- 3.2Symptoms of pathology
- 3.3Methods of treatment
- 3.4Conservative therapy
4Three forms of hypoplasia of the vertebral artery - symptoms, causes and treatment
- 4.1Hypoplasia - what is it?
- 4.2Left vertebral artery
- 4.3Right vertebral artery
- 4.8Medication Therapy
- 4.9Folk remedies
- 4.10Surgical intervention
- 4.11Danger and consequences
Hypoplasia of the right or left vertebral artery - what is it and what does it threaten?
The blood supply to the human brain is due to the Willis circle - the arterial complex, which includes the right and left branches of the vertebral arteries. They separate from the subclavian artery and stretch towards the cranium, where they break down into small vessels.
Normally, both vertebral arteries should be developed equally, but sometimes the formation of the left or right can be disturbed, resulting in a pathology called hypoplasia - we'll figure it out such.
Hypoplasia of vertebral arteries is a congenital disease characterized by their inadequate development.The lumen of the vessel at the site of its introduction into the bone channel is considerably narrowed, because of which there is a violation of blood supply to the brain tissue.
Pathology can beleft, right or double sided, and most often the violation concerns the right artery - according to statistics, this phenomenon is observed in every tenth person in the world.
Bilateral hypoplasia is considered a fairly rare disease, but with untimely diagnosis, the pathological process that occurs in one of the arteries may affect the other in the future.
Causes and risk factors
The most common risk factors for the disease includeintrauterine fetal development anomalies that may result from:
- uterine trauma during pregnancy;
- intoxication of the maternal and child organism due to the use of alcohol, drugs, drugs, smoking, exposure to chemical or toxic substances, and ionizing radiation;
- infectious diseases transferred by a woman during the period of bearing a child;
- hereditary predisposition.
The complete absence of these factors does not guarantee the absence of pathology, since the exact reasons for its development have not yet been established.
Over time, hypoplasia is aggravated by a decrease in the elasticity of the vessels and the deposition of cholesterol in them, which, in the case of insufficient development of the arteries, greatly accelerates the course of the disease.
What is the difference between right-sided hypoplasia and left-sided hypoplasia?
In right-sided hypoplasia, which occurs in patients much more often, there are no specific symptoms or serious differences.
The difference between these types of pathology is only that botharteries provide blood supply to different parts of the brain - respectively, hypoplasia of the vertebral arteries on the right and left can lead to different consequences and complications.
Danger and consequences
Disorders associated with hypoplasia, often attributed to other vascular diseases, because of which the diagnosis of pathology is significantly complicated.
If untimely treatment, its consequences may bedeterioration of sight, hearing and work of the vestibular apparatus, changes in the composition of blood and other biological fluids, as well as atherosclerosis and thrombosis.
Therefore, at the first suspicion of hypoplasia, the patient should consult a doctor as soon as possible.
Symptoms and signs
A defect can not give symptoms for a long time and manifest only in adulthood or old age.
At a young age, the functions of the vertebral arteries take on more subtle branches, which provides a compensatory effect.
Butover the years, the resources of the body begin to be exhausted, and he can no longer compensate for blood flow disorders alone- During this period the person has the first unpleasant manifestations of hypoplasia.
General symptoms of pathology include:
- frequent and causeless dizziness;
- violations of the functions of the vestibular apparatus;
- weakness and decreased efficiency;
- lethargy and drowsiness;
- numbness and loss of sensitivity in the limbs (especially in the fingers);
- distorted perception of space.
Over time, the symptoms increase and those that are associated with a defect in the right or left artery come to the fore.
So,right-sided hypoplasia is manifested by a disturbance in the emotional background: irritability, frequent mood swings, lethargy, fatigue and drowsiness, which can be replaced by insomnia. The person becomes meteozavisimym, can feel as if for a long time rolled on the carousel, stumble when walking and constantly bumping into objects.
Basicpeculiarity of left-sided hypoplasia - stagnation of blood in blood vessels, because of which the common symptoms of pathology are associated with severe pain in the cervical spine, as well as an increase in blood pressure.
When should I see a doctor?
The treatment of hypoplasia of vertebral arteries is handled by a neuropathologist, to whom one must immediately applyafter the appearance of the first symptoms.
Delay in this case can be extremely dangerous, as signs of hemodynamic disorders suggest that the body can no longer compensate for blood flow disorders on its own.
After listening to patient complaints and collecting an anamnesis in order to clarify the diagnosis, the doctor should prescribe additional tests and studies.
Identify hypoplasia in the early stages of its development is extremely difficult due to the lack of characteristic symptoms and manifestations. There are three main methods for diagnosing narrowing of the lumen of vertebral arteries, which include:
- Ultrasound examination of the vessels of the head and neck. During the procedure, the image of the artery is fixed using an ultrasound machine, after which an analysis type, intensity and diameter of the blood flow (a serious defect is the narrowing of the diameter of the vessels to 2 mm and less).
- Tomography of head and neck. By means of computer and magnetic resonance tomographs, the state of vessels filled with a special contrast substance is assessed.
- Angiography. X-ray examination, which reveals anomalies in the structure of blood vessels and vertebral arteries.
In addition, for the diagnosis of concomitant diseases that can affect the course of hypoplasia (for example, the pathology of the cervical vertebrae), the doctor may prescribe additional studies.
There are no methods for specific treatment of vertebral arterial hypoplasia. If the disease does not give clinical symptoms and is detected accidentally during a preventive examination, specialistsusually choose observation tactics.
The patient is recommended to give up bad habits, normalize the regime of the day and limit the time of work at the computer. Patients are also shown exercise therapy, moderate exercise and a full sleep on anatomically correct pillows.
Hypoplasia has a peculiarity of exacerbating in the spring and autumn, so at this time one should pay special attention to one's health.
At the stage of pronounced clinical symptoms of hypoplasia of the right or left vertebral artery, a conservativetreatment with vasodilator drugs- they eliminate unpleasant phenomena and improve the patient's quality of life. In cases where there is a risk of blood clots, the reception of anticoagulants (medications that dilute the blood) is indicated.
In addition, you needcure concomitant diseases of the cervical spine(the most common of these is osteochondrosis), since they can significantly worsen the patient's condition.
If pharmacological therapy does not give the expected effect, doctors resort to surgical treatment of hypoplasia of the vertebral arteries.
With a significant narrowing of the artery and acute disturbance of blood flow, an operation aimed atexpansion of lumen of vessels and installation of special implants(stenosis of vessels, angioplasty).
Since the exact causes of the disease have not yet been clarified, it is almost impossible to prevent it.
To reduce the risk of developing hypoplasia of the vertebral arteries in the fetus,women are advised to undergo all studies at the planning stage of pregnancy(in particular, the analysis on TORCH-infection) and, if necessary, receive adequate treatment.
In the period of gestationfuture mother should abandon bad habits, lead a healthy lifestyleand, if possible, eliminate negative factors from their lives that may affect the development of the embryo..
Hypoplasia of vertebral arteries is not a death sentence. Approximately 10% of the world's population live for many years without even guessing about the presence of this pathology..
The risk of complications increases only in old age, but with timely treatment, prevention and appropriate attitude to their health, they can be avoided.
A source: http://oserdce.com/sosudy/bolezni/gipoplaziya-pozvonochnoj-arterii.html
Hypoplasia of vertebral arteries
When developing cerebral symptoms in young patients, neurologists should consider the probability that this change (hypoplasia) of such arteries as the left vertebral column, right or both. The disease is considered a birth defect. Without treatment, it contributes to impaired blood circulation in the vessels of the brain, more often in the posterior regions.
Since the brain's nuclear structures determine the rhythm and normal functioning of the whole organism, the patient may experience signs of cardiovascular disorders, vestibular changes.
What is hypoplasia?
First of all, let us recall that the problem of vertebral (vertebral) arteries is to bring up to 30% of the required volume of blood into the bloodstream of the brain. It is these vessels that form the Willis circle on the base of the brain, from which the branches branch along the share principle into the depth of the brain substance.
In normal development, both the right and left arteries work equally, their diameter varies in different areas from 2 to, mm
In a state of underdevelopment of the body or tissue, they speak of hypoplasia. The most common hypoplasia in the right vertebral artery. According to statistics, it is observed in 10% of the population. Left-sided lesions or two at the same time are rare.
Causes of impaired vascular development in the fetus may be:
- uncontrolled treatment of pregnant drugs that have a toxic effect on the child (antibiotics, anti-influenza drugs, diuretics);
- work of the future mother in harmful conditions (with pesticides, dyes, household chemicals);
- use of drugs, alcohol, smoking during pregnancy;
- suffered injuries;
- acute infectious diseases and exacerbation of chronic;
- finding a pregnant woman in a radioactively contaminated area;
- hereditary predisposition to the pathology of the heart and blood vessels.
A specific cause of hypoplasia is not yet established. These options can be considered as reliable risk factors.
The morphologically underdeveloped vertebral vessel looks shortened, less elastic, narrowed in the upper intracranial region (at the entrance to the large opening of the skull).
Such changes entail:
- decrease in the total blood flow (more often on the right, less often on the left arteries) to the brain tissues;
- favorable conditions for thrombosis (local decrease in the rate of movement of platelets);
- with the subsequent violation of fat metabolism with age, create a convenient place for the deposition of cholesterol plaques and the development of an atherosclerotic process.
Compensatory mechanisms that delay the manifestation of pathology
The following mechanisms for replenishment of cerebral blood flow have been most clearly studied:
We advise you to read: the investigation of cerebral vessels
- Vertebral arteries are able to compensate for impaired inflow in one of the symmetrical vessels due to redistribution and reverse flow of blood through a short common basal stem. Thus, each artery "helps" if necessary another.
- Vascular collaterals depart in the form of thin branches. But in conditions of insufficiency of the main trunk they take on a large mass of blood and try to bypass the site of constriction.
- The development of anastomoses - most often the "donor vessel" for vertebral branches is subclavian the artery, the pressure in it is much higher, it "pushes" the blood into the bypass network and fills the vertebral arteries.
- Local arterial hypertension - is formed to ensure the transit of blood flow through the narrowed passage. In this case, hypertension is considered secondary and is adaptive in order to maintain the level of cerebral circulation.
Are there any reliable symptoms?
Symptoms of functional deficiency of vertebral arteries are formed due to the accumulation of signs of chronic cerebral pathology. Complaints of the patient, his examination, ineffective treatment allow one to suspect a connection with hypoplasia.
With well-preserved compensation of the left or right vessels, symptoms begin to manifest in middle age and are provoked by atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases.
Neurological focal symptomatology appears only in the presence of an ischemic site in the brain. The main signs indicate a general insufficient blood supply to the brain.
The most common are:
- headaches of a different nature and intensity;
- attacks of nausea and dizziness;
- swaying when walking, falling;
- sudden disruption of the perception of his body, causing a collision with objects;
- deterioration of vision;
- functional disruptions of the nervous system (insomnia, irritability, increased fatigue, sweating);
- pain in the cervical spine;
- loss of orientation in space.
Temporary impairment of skin sensitivity on the face, limbs can be one of the symptoms
Some authors note the meteosensitivity in most patients. Rather, this sign can be attributed to a functional malfunction in the vegetative department of the nervous system.
Differences in symptoms with left or right-sided hypoplasia can not be, because both vessels do not feed the brain on their own, but through a common basilar artery.
The pathology of one of them causes a general (total) decrease in blood flow.
However, some authors believe that meteosensitivity is more characteristic for hypoplasia of the right artery, and pain in the neck for the left.
All described symptoms are not specific for the broken patency of one of the vertebral arteries. Hypoplasia can be detected only through targeted research using modern equipment.
How is hypoplasia revealed?
Existing methods allow you to put the correct diagnosis after checking the shape, direction, diameter of the vertebral arteries in each segment.
On the features of the anatomical structure and location of the vertebral arteries, read this article.
Ultrasound techniques, including conventional ultrasound, dopplerography of the vessels of the neck and head, duplex scans, provide an opportunity to check the direction of the vertebral arteries, the internal diameter, the nature of the crimp, the structure walls.
One of these signs is the deviation from the norm of the lumen of the vessel in the direction of decreasing. The average diameter is, mm.
Narrowing to 2 mm is regarded as a significant hypoplasia, especially if the site is localized in the upper segment of the artery
The tomography is performed with the help of a magnetic resonance (MR) apparatus and a computer technique. MR-signs allow you to assess the blood flow and the possibilities of the Willis circle.
In conclusion, the doctor is informed about all the vascular components. Congenital abnormalities from hypoplasia to aplasia (complete absence of part of the artery) are possible.
The most informative is MR angiography, which combines vascular contrasting with the possibilities of resonance reflection of waves.
Treatment is required only with the onset of decompensation.
In some patients, fitness is quite sufficient and does not cause any symptomatology.
Increased physical activity or additional diseases of blood vessels and heart reveal anatomical insufficiency of vertebral vessels.
In non-severe cases, patients are assisted by vasodilators. Drugs allow you to expand the vessel and increase the flow of blood.
These include the famous nitro group (Nitroglycerin, Sustak, Erinit).
These medications can be accompanied by headache, tachycardia, nasal congestion, a feeling of heat, dizziness, vomiting.
It is possible to reduce the negative effect by simultaneous reception of antiaggregants (Curantila, Trentala).
Any conservative treatment has such goals:
- support of compensatory mechanisms;
- prevention of thrombotic complications.
It is impossible to change the structure of the vessel with medicines.
There are drugs that make up the hypoxia of the brain, supporting the metabolism of cells (nootropics, Piracetam, Cortexin).
Folk remedies do not treat hypoplasia. This should be learned by patients and does not waste time on unnecessary expectations. You can deal with the prevention of subsequent atherosclerosis with dietary recommendations, the use of herbs and plants to strengthen the vascular wall.
When is the surgical treatment indicated?
The most radical method of treatment is the installation of stents in the narrowed section of the artery. Angioplasty (replacing part of the vessel with a prosthesis or own vein) is practically not used, because it is considered to be ineffective.
The stent is a metal mesh tube. Its diameter is equal to the normal lumen of the vertebral artery. After the operation, the blood flow is provided in the proper volume.
Surgical intervention is performed in vascular units or specialized centers. The operation is performed under general anesthesia. Through a small incision on the skin under the control of a video monitor, a catheter with a balloon at the end is inserted into the artery..
The balloon is inflated, and the stent is fixed on it. When the narrowing site is reached, the balloon is blown off and the catheter is easily removed. And in the right part of the vertebral artery there is a stent..
The ultrasound examination should confirm the opening of the stent and the restoration of the blood flow.
If necessary, the balloon is reintroduced.
To prevent postoperative thrombosis:
- medicines from the Aspirin group, antiaggregants (Kurantil) are prescribed;
- physical activity is limited.
How is fitness determined for military service?
If a young man has an invasive age of congenital hypoplasia of the vertebral arteries, he is given a delay of six months to one year to conduct pre-examination in a stationary setting.
Relatives rightly fear for the impact of heavy physical exertion in the service in the army
Depending on the degree of revealed violations of arterial patency and cerebral symptoms, the young man can be recognized as:
- limitedly fit with enrollment in the reserve in peacetime - with rare transient violations;
- temporarily unsuitable - with initial signs of cerebral blood flow insufficiency, a combination with other symptoms is given a respite for treatment;
- absolutely unsuitable - with more severe symptoms, a transferred stenting operation.
From the timely detection of signs of hypoplasia, it depends not only the elimination of pathology, but also the consideration of a risk group in the prevention of cerebrovascular diseases.
The irresponsible behavior of some expectant mothers is a serious cause of the prevalence birth defects, complicating the child's life, limiting his aspirations and goals in the adult condition.
A source: http://serdec.ru/bolezni/gipoplaziya-pozvonochnyh-arteriy
Causes, symptoms and treatment of hypoplasia of the right vertebral artery
From this article you will learn: what is hypoplasia of the right vertebral artery, the causes of this pathology, its characteristic symptoms and methods of treatment.
The vertebral artery is a paired vessel that extends from the subclavian artery and, together with the carotid arteries, provides blood supply to the brain.
With vascular anomalies, the prerequisites for reducing cerebral blood flow are created.
This is what happens when hypoplasia of the right vertebral artery, but what is it? Hypoplasia is an underdevelopment of the body, the consequence of which is a decrease in its functionality.
In the case of the vertebral artery, hypoplasia refers to a decrease in the diameter of the vessel to less than 2 mm. This type of anomaly is inherent in nature and is often a consequence of pregnancy pathology.
Symptoms often occur only in adulthood due to the deterioration of the elasticity of the vessels and the attachment of atherosclerosis.
In such a situation, there may be a decrease in blood flow to certain parts of the brain.
Up to a certain limit, the pathology of the blood supply can be compensated, but the protective mechanisms of the body can be depleted or fail to work in emergency situations.
Differences from lesions of the left vertebral artery are usually absent. The only difference is that right-sided damage to the vessel occurs several times more often than the left-sided - according to some observations in a ratio of approximately 3 to 1.
A picture of a computed tomography
It is difficult to give an unambiguous answer to the danger of the state. Neurons of the brain are particularly sensitive to malnutrition due to impaired blood flow.
Therefore, hypoplasia of the arteries going to the brain can lead to more serious consequences for the body compared with the underdevelopment of other vessels.
The degree of danger depends on the severity of hypoplasia and associated health problems (vascular disease, pathology of the cervical spine, heart disease).
Complete cure of the disease is impossible, even after surgery, only temporary compensation of local blood flow can be achieved.
Treatment of hypoplasia of vertebral arteries is usually done by neuropathologists..
Medical care is needed only by those patients in whom hypoplasia is manifested by those or other symptoms of worsening cerebral circulation..
With a significant narrowing of the lumen of the vessel with severe symptoms of circulatory disturbance, a consultation of the vascular surgeon is necessary to resolve the issue of the need for surgery.
Causes of hypoplasia of the right vertebral artery
Underdevelopment of vertebral vessels is often detected accidentally in adulthood during the examination. However, this pathology is inherent in nature.
To the underdevelopment of blood vessels can lead to various problems with the health of a pregnant woman, trauma during bearing a fetus, hereditary predisposition.
List of possible causes of hypoplasia of the vertebral artery:
- Postponed during pregnancy infections: rubella, influenza, toxoplasmosis.
- Bruises or trauma of the mother.
- Drinking alcohol, medicines pregnant, smoking, drug addiction.
- Genetic features that increase the risk of formation of defects in the circulatory system.
Principles of a Healthy Lifestyle During Pregnancy
Pathology can be asymptomatic for a long time. With a slight severity of blood supply disorders and symptoms, the condition can be mistakenly attributed to other pathologies: osteochondrosis, vegetative-vascular dystonia.
Hypoplasia is considered one of the most common abnormalities of vertebral arteries.
Data on the prevalence of hypoplasia among the population differ in different sources and range from up to 2% of cases.
But it is known that hypoplasia of the vertebral artery to the right is encountered much more often than on the left or both sides simultaneously.
This is probably due to the anatomical features of the formation of vascular formations. The vessel to the right departs from the subclavian artery at an acute angle, to the left almost at right angles, the diameter of the right artery is often smaller than the left, and its extent is greater.
The asymptomatic course of the anomaly of the right vertebral artery indicates sufficient compensation of blood flow due to the available compounds (anastomoses) between the vessels and due to the developed network of collaterals - branches of other vessels, blood supplying the same sites as the vertebral artery. Ensuring a uniform flow of blood to all parts of the brain is largely due to presence of closed circulatory systems, when the arteries of different vascular pools merge with each other friend. These protective mechanisms often compensate for a long time insufficient blood flow along the right vertebral artery. Therefore, clinical manifestations often occur gradually as the development of age changes.
Symptoms of pathology
Symptoms of this ailment are very diverse and can vary significantly among different patients.
Here are a few groups of symptoms:
|Vertebral||Pain in the cervical region, occiput|
|Local||Pain with irradiation in the head when palpation at the vertebral artery - between the transverse processes of 1 and 2 cervical vertebrae|
|Symptoms associated with worsening of blood flow in the vertebrobasilar system or irritation of sympathetic fibers of the nerve plexus around the vertebral artery||Increased blood pressure, headache, visual disturbances, hearing impairment, coordination, unstable gait, dizziness, impaired sensitivity|
Characteristic manifestations of the disease:
- Pain in pathology can vary significantly in intensity and other characteristics.
- Often, patients experience pulsating or sweeping pain with spreading from the neck and occiput to the temporomandibular areas.
- Pain increases with head turns, at night and after waking.
- Often, hypoplasia is manifested by dizziness, a sense of disorientation, a distortion of the perception of the position of the body in space. Such episodes are often associated with the slopes of the head, sharp movements. They can lead to staggering or even falling.
- Severe attacks of dizziness sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness, fainting.
In addition to the pain syndrome with pathology, the following disorders can occur:
- deterioration of vision, pain in the eyes, double vision, a feeling of sand or the flashing of flies;
- hearing impairment, tinnitus, neurosensory hearing loss, vestibular disorders;
- problems from the cardiovascular system;
- mood swings, depression;
- fatigue, weakness;
- sleep disturbance;
Arterial hypertension, attacks of angina pectoris are not always a direct consequence of an abnormality of vertebral vessels.
Usually the combination of cardiac pathology with hypoplasia leads to an aggravation of the course of the disease.
At the same time, the reduced blood flow in the vertebrobasilar basin provokes episodes of myocardial ischemia and an increase in blood pressure.
Hypoplasia of the right vertebral artery increases the risk of developing a cerebral stroke due to a violation blood flow in the vertebrobasilar system and due to involvement of the vascular wall in case of development atherosclerosis.
Methods of treatment
In the case of vascular hypoplasia, a complete cure of the disease is impossible. Even after reconstructive surgery, only temporary compensation of local blood flow can be achieved.
Conservative treatment includes taking medications, physiotherapy methods, therapeutic exercise, acupuncture. To improve blood supply to the brain, several groups of drugs are used:
- Vasodilators (cavinton, actovegin, ceraxon).
- Neuroprotectors and nootropics (piracetam, glycine, picamilon, mexidol), which improve metabolic processes in the brain tissue.
- Betagistin, effective in the presence of dizziness.
- Antihypertensive drugs are needed in case of increased blood pressure: calcium antagonists (amlodipine), beta-adrenoblockers (bisoprolol), ACE-angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (lisinopril).
- Prevention of the formation of thrombi is carried out with the help of antiaggregants (aspirin, pentoxifylline, clopidogrel).
From physiotherapy methods can be used:
- diadynamic currents;
- electrophoresis with drugs that have vasodilator, analgesic effect.
Surgical intervention can be performed by an open method or by the endovascular method (through small holes, without large incisions).
To restore blood flow, apply:
- Stenting, in which a stent is inserted into the narrowing of the vessel to expand the narrowed section. Such stents can be impregnated with drugs.
- Angioplasty, in which a balloon is introduced into the constriction zone, which is inflated with air to expand the vessel. Angioplasty and stenting can complement each other.
- In severe situations, a more complex reconstructive operation is performed: removal of the deformed area and prosthetics using the patient's own vein.
The prognosis for pathology of hypoplasia of the right vertebral artery depends on the degree of underdevelopment, compensatory mechanisms of the organism, concomitant pathologies. In the absence of symptoms of worsening cerebral blood flow or minimal manifestations of pathology, the prognosis can be considered conditionally favorable.
Hypoplasia is attributed to predisposing factors of stroke.
According to statistics, 70% of transient cerebral circulatory disorders and 30% of strokes are associated with impaired blood flow in the vertebrobasilar system.
Therefore, finding an anomaly requires active preventive measures, especially if there are other risk factors.
The presence of severe manifestations of vertebrobasilar insufficiency significantly worsens the prognosis.
With insufficient effectiveness of conservative therapy, only surgical treatment can improve the situation.
Good results are obtained by using the endovascular method, which can be performed even in patients with high "surgical risk".
A source: http://okardio.com/bolezni-sosudov/gipoplaziya-pravoj-pozvonochnoj-arterii-479.html
Three forms of hypoplasia of the vertebral artery - symptoms, causes and treatment
The brain is the most important organ of the human body, responsible for regulating the work of all organs and systems.
However, the brain can be affected by a variety of diseases, most of which are vascular disorders.
One of such pathologies is hypoplasia of the vertebral arteries.
This disease leads to a violation of cerebral circulation, which threatens with severe dysfunctions of various organs and systems, we will talk about it.
Hypoplasia - what is it?
The term hypoplasia in medicine is characterized by a pathological process of an innate character, with which occurs underdevelopment or changes in organs and tissues at the stage of their formation in embryo.
This term is applicable to the most diverse areas of the human body, from the teeth to the genitals, however, the topic of this article is hypoplasia of cerebral arteries, in particular, vertebrates.
Vertebral arteries are part of the Willis circle, they move away from the clavicular artery along with the carotid and provide blood supply to the brain..
From the aggregate of these arteries, a vertebrobasilar pool is formed, which in turn is responsible for the blood flow in the vertebrobasilar system and supplying the brain with blood..
As for cervical hypoplasia, pathology is divided into three forms:
- Right-sided (most common).
- Two-sided (the rarest type of pathology).
The pathological process, which consists in the underdevelopment of blood vessels, involves the narrowing of the left, right, or both vertebral arteries.
This anomaly of development can also be called a kind of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBN), in which not only the narrowing of the neck vessels of the neck, but also the vertebral arteries is possible.
Under normal circumstances, all the arteries of the cervical region develop evenly.
Hypoplasia of the vessels of the cervical region, responsible for the blood supply to the brain, affects the supply of blood to the posterior lobes of the brain. In most cases, pathology leads to heart disease, cardiovascular system, vestibular apparatus is affected, etc.
It is also worth noting that most doctors agree that the narrowing of the left or right arterial vessels is not much different, especially in the symptomatology. The essential difference is only that the arteries are responsible for the blood supply to different parts of the brain, because of which the effects mainly differ.
To fully understand the problems of the development of the pathological process, it is worthwhile to consider its most common forms in more detail.
Left vertebral artery
Being a less common form of pathology, hypoplasia of the left vertebral artery is no less a threat to the human body.
The artery consists of 4 segments, conventionally designated as V1, V2, V3 (extracranial segments) and V4 (intracranial segment). The pathology of narrowing of the intracranial segment develops gradually, over the years, because of which early detection of the problem is almost impossible.
Hypoplasia of the left PA is invariably accompanied by narrowing of the vascular lumen, which causes problems with blood circulation.
The pathological process is characterized by the difficulty of patency of the vessel, the patient begins to stagnate blood, which leads to ischemia of individual parts of the brain that feed directly from the anatomically located artery left.
The narrowing of the lumen of the vertebral arteries does not immediately make itself felt, including thanks to the adaptive systems of the body. In this case, clinical signs become more pronounced, due to age-related changes in the structure.
Right vertebral artery
According to statistics, hypoplasia of the right vertebral artery occurs once for every tenth person, that is, affects 10 people out of 100.
The narrowing of the right PA is in most cases also a pathology of the congenital type. This form of pathological process is also accompanied by a violation of blood supply, however, ischemia and blood stasis in this case are less frequent.
The main factor of danger in BPA hypoplasia is called concomitant diseases of the circulatory system and blood vessels..
If hypoplasia of the vertebral artery is accompanied, for example, by arteriosclerosis of the vessels, the development of a second disease and related degenerative changes in the head will occur many times faster than if the disease developed yourself..
The severity of the pathological process largely depends on how extensive it is.
The disease can affect the posterior connective artery, cover all 4 segments (in the pathological process, segments of the artery are not immediately involved, but one at a time), etc.
In cases where pathology assumes a severe course, is complicated by other diseases, affects vertebrobasilar system and touches the vertebral artery, the patient may experience a decrease in sensitivity to certain parts of the body. This is a clear sign of a violation of blood circulation in the appropriate area of the brain, in such situations, urgently consult a doctor and take a survey.
Hypoplasia, that is, an abnormality of tissue or organ development, which in this case refers to the vertebral arteries, as mentioned earlier, is a congenital pathology.
This means that the main reason for the underdevelopment of the artery is in embryonic stages.
At the same time, we can identify a number of factors that contribute to the fact that hypoplasia of the vertebral artery will occur in a newborn and will manifest itself at a certain age:
- Migrated mother infectious diseases during pregnancy.
- The effect of radiation or ionizing radiation on the fetus.
- Mechanical injuries, including strokes, bruises and other injuries of the abdominal cavity at the time of bearing the child.
- Narrowing of the artery in a newborn can be triggered by a genetic predisposition, for example, if a family history of a vascular nature is involved in a history of the family.
- Toxic factor - if during pregnancy a woman smoked, abused alcohol, worked for a chemical company, a long time took any potent drugs, it is likely that hypoplasia may be associated with each of these factors.
As already mentioned earlier, in the early stages of signs of hypoplasia may be completely absent. The development of the pathological process can last for years and only with the narrowing of the arterial gleam to a certain level will there be some symptomatology.
The paradox lies in the fact that in the absence of manifestations of pathology in the early stages, the entry of the disease into the so-called active phase is accompanied by the richest clinical picture. However, in every patient with narrowing of the vertebral artery (right or left), the symptomatology manifests itself in completely different ways:
- Headaches of a different nature and specificity. Painful sensations can be periodic or permanent, intensify after intense physical exertion or manifest at rest. When the brain arteries are hypoplastic, the pain also differs in intensity, from the strong, which have to be reduced by analgesics, to the weak, which many suffer without medication. As for the specifics, in most cases it is a question of blunt and aching pain, however, they can be sharp, stabbing.
- Unreasonable dizziness indicates a violation of cerebral circulation. This clinical sign is the second most frequent manifestation and also has a different character. In some cases, vertigo is not associated with physical exertion, emotional state and other factors, they simply appear in rapid succession and pass also without a trace, as they appeared. In other cases, dizziness begins after a change in the position of the body, any stress, stress and other.
- Often hypoplasia of the right vertebral artery is accompanied by emotional disturbances. Behind a person there are rapid and sharp changes in mood, oppression that can last up to 2-3 days, then disappear without a trace, constant lethargy, states of apathy and even depressive state.
- If we talk about hypoplasia of the left vertebral artery, this form of pathological process is more often characterized by differences in blood pressure. Yes, with right-sided hypoplasia, they are also present in the clinical picture, but in this case are noted more often.
- Pathology reflects on the patient's body with a state of drowsiness, fatigue, a sense of weakness. People with hypoplasia do not get enough sleep even with a full eight hour strong sleep, are in a limp state, often yawn.
- Pathology can be accompanied by violations affecting the vestibular apparatus. In this case, there are also dizziness among the clinical signs, but they become more intense, it is associated with nausea, excessive sweating, a change in the color of the skin (pallor or vice versa, redness person). The clearest signs of the defeat of the vestibular apparatus and the progression of this pathology will be coordination disorders. There is a loss of balance, the gait becomes insecure, the person reels from side to side, all movements become fuzzy, loss in space can develop.
Over time, symptoms worsen, severe forms of hypoplasia of the vertebral artery are accompanied by lesions of the nervous system.
On the one hand, it is expressed in the numbness of individual parts of the body (often the limbs), on the other, visual hallucinations.
In some cases, even partial paralysis occurs.
The patient learns of the disease when the first symptoms appear, in 95% of cases it is at these stages that they turn to the doctor and diagnose hypoplasia. Diagnostic measures suggest the passage of such surveys:
- Ultrasound of the vessels of the brain and cervical region, in which the doctor fixes the parameters of the examined arteries (diameter, condition, etc.). If by this analysis the diameter of the arteries is less than 2 millimeters. The result of ultrasound is confirmed or refuted by the diagnosis of hypoplasia of the vertebral artery.
- Among the diagnostic methods, there is a computer tomography of the cervical and head sections with the use of a contrast medium.
- Angiography - assessment of the functional state of vessels, their patency, reveal the severity of the pathological process and the involved areas of the arteries.
Depending on the patient's complaints, his age, the nature of the course of the pathological process, and others factors, additional tests may be required, for example, diagnosis of heart disease and and so forth.
A full-scale drug treatment of pathology does not exist today. For this reason, the answer to the question of how to treat hypoplasia, the response will be various auxiliary and symptomatic measures.
In addition, the treatment of hypoplasia of the right vertebral artery is complex, it consists of:
- Conservative therapy.
- Treatment with folk remedies.
- In an extreme case of surgical intervention.
Drug therapy is a conservative method that presupposes the use of medications of such groups:
- Vasculature - improve blood flow, relieving the patient of the mass of concomitant symptoms, improve quality and life expectancy, prevent the development of complications;
- Anticoagulants - are aimed at diluting the blood, thereby preventing the formation of blood clots.
In addition, it is important to focus on the treatment of co-morbidities, if any.
Traditional medicine is not capable of substituting medications for treatment, but it is an auxiliary option, it keeps the disease in check. Consider the most effective methods of treatment with folk remedies:
- Do not find a better natural remedy for vasodilation than hawthorn. It is enough to take 40 grams of fruits of the plant, pour 500 milliliters of boiling water in a thermos, close tightly and insist 30-40 minutes. The drug is drunk three times a day for 50 milliliters on an empty stomach;
- Expand the vessels and improve the condition can vasodilator herbal collection. Mix in equal amounts Yarrow, immortelle, St. John's wort, chamomile and birch buds. Then pour 15-20 grams of carefully mixed collection of 500 milliliters of water, insist 30 minutes, strain and consume 250 ml in the morning and evening.
The extreme measure, which is resorted to, if conservative methods of treatment do not give the proper effect, and the patient's condition continues to worsen. The operation can help to normalize the blood flow, it involves inserting into the artery a stent designed to widen its lumen.
Danger and consequences
Ignoring symptoms, inadequate treatment or lack of it lead to serious consequences:
- Heart diseases;
- Pathology of the circulatory system;
- Violations of the vestibular apparatus;
- Neurological problems;
- Various systemic disorders;
- Decreased sensory capabilities;
- Paralysis of the extremities and much more.
Since the disease is congenital in nature, the prevention of its development in a newborn depends on the mother.
During the entire pregnancy, you need to monitor your health, prevent serious infectious diseases (take tests in advance), abandon bad habits.
A woman should lead a healthy lifestyle, protect the fruit from mechanical damage, do not overwork, not be nervous, etc.
Hypoplasia of the vertebral artery is a dangerous pathological process that requires constant monitoring and appropriate treatment. If you fight the disease appropriately, you can avoid all the negative effects and complications.
A source: https://MoiPozvonochnik.ru/otdely-pozvonochnika/pozvonochnik/gipoplaziya-pravoj-arterii