Sprays from genyantritis
Genyantritis is one of the varieties of sinusitis, which manifests itself in the form of inflammation of the maxillary sinuses (on the x-ray photo the disease looks like their darkening). A good tool to fight the disease are sprays from sinusitis in vials with special nebulizers. Preparations having this form of release are considered more effective than drops or solutions. What are their benefits and what kind of nasal spray is best used in genyantritis?
Advantages of medicines in the form of a spray
Treatment of sinusitis at home is not without pharmacies. This disease has an infectious or (less often) allergic origin. It is accompanied by pronounced edema, severe breathing difficulties and dense secretions. It should be treated with such drugs that provide antibacterial or anti-allergic action, remove the swelling of the nasal mucosa, dilute the secretions and facilitate breathing. Sprays from sinusitis are excellent in these tasks.
Use them is more convenient than drops, since the
Types of nasal sprays for the treatment of sinusitis
Choosing the right nasal spray from the common cold and sinusitis is necessary in view of the symptoms. When a patient has thick, mucus discharge with difficulty and is facing the task of how to dilute the snot in the nose, it is necessary to use mucolytic drugs, with strong edema - vasoconstrictive, and in the presence of pus - funds with antibacterial effect.
All medications in the form of sprays, used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the nasopharynx, are conventionally divided into vasoconstrictive, mucolytic, hormonal, antibacterial, moisturizing, which serve to wash and cleanse the nose. However, many drugs have a complex effect, that is, they have several pharmacological effects.
Such sprays from sinusitis are indispensable in cases of severe stuffiness, which does not make it possible to breathe normally. They narrow the blood vessels, thus eliminating the swelling of the mucosa and facilitating breathing. However, vasoconstrictive drugs for the nose are only symptomatic: they are only able to temporarily eliminate puffiness, but do not affect the healing process in any way. In addition, these drugs can cause addiction, so apply them with a time limit.
This type of medication allows you to minimize the dryness, irritation and burning caused by the long use of specific drugs. Moisturizing spray from sinusitis is used for complex treatment. It may not contain components with a pronounced pharmacological effect. These drugs include sprays based on brine and sea water.
This category of drugs refers to potent hormonal drugs. They are prescribed for severe inflammatory processes and allergies, with which the medicine against sinusitis with a more gentle effect can not cope. Hormonal sprays help with severe forms of the disease, but because of the potential for serious side effects, they should be used under the supervision of a doctor.
With genyantritis, the discharge from the nose is often too thick, and that is why they barely vomarkivayutsya in a natural way. To improve the separation of secretions from the nasal sinuses, a mucolytic spray is prescribed from the sinusitis, capable of thinning stagnant slimy secret, make it less viscous, thereby reducing edema and normalizing the general condition nasopharynx.
Antibacterial sprains from sinusitis contain an antibacterial agent. They must be used in such forms of inflammatory diseases, complicated by a bacterial infection. Independently use antibiotics in the treatment of sinusitis is highly not recommended, because the optimal form of the active ingredient and the exact dosage should be selected by the doctor.
List of the best sprays for the nose with genyantema
It is recommended that you consult with your doctor about which preparation is best for sinusitis. Independently choosing drugs that are dispensed without a prescription, you must carefully follow the instructions and observe the symptoms of the disease. If after several days of using the drug there are no improvements, you need to contact a specialist.
Ingredients: active component xylometazoline, additional substances.
Action: the agent has a pronounced vasoconstrictive effect, which ensures the elimination of edema and the relief of breathing. The drug does not prevent the natural discharge of secretions. As part of "Otrivin" contains hypromellose and sorbitol, reducing the severity of side effects observed with its long-term use.
Application: adults and children from 6 years - one injection) 3-4 times a day. A child younger than 6 years of age is prescribed a dosage form of the drug with a reduced concentration of the active ingredient, which is used 1-2 times, but no more than 3 times a day. This spray of sinusitis can not be used for more than 10 days in a row.
Cost: from 150 rubles.
Ingredients: active ingredient naphazoline, auxiliary components.
Action: The spray reduces the swelling of the mucosa, restoring the patency of the nasal passages, facilitating breathing and improving the patency of the Eustachian tubes. With long use, the effect of the drug is gradually reduced, so it is recommended to use it with breaks every 5 days for the treatment of sinusitis.
Application: the agent is injected 1-3 3-4 times per day. The duration of therapy with this drug for children is no more than 3 days, for adults - not longer than a week.
Cost: from 170 rubles.
Composition: active substances phenylephrine and dimethindene, additional components.
Action: the agent has vasoconstrictive and antihistamine action.
Application: the drug is prescribed for children over 6 years and adults in a dose of 1-2 injections 3-4 times a day. It should not be used for more than 7 days, unless another period of treatment is agreed with the doctor. With a long (more than 2 weeks) use or exceeding the recommended dose, it can cause the development of drug rhinitis.
Cost: from 250 rubles.
Composition: sterilized sea and purified water.
Action: This spray with seawater for the nose dilutes mucus, normalizes its production and effectively removes dirt, dust, allergens from the mucous membrane, reducing its inflammation.
Usage: adults are prescribed 2-3 doses from 4 to 8 times a day, children from 7 to 16 years - 2 injections 4-6 times, from year to 7 - the same number of applications, but no more than 4 times a day. With maxillitis, the treatment period can be from 2 to 4 weeks or longer.
Cost: from 200 rubles.
Composition: sea water.
Action: the spray removes inflammation from the nasal mucosa, provides its effective cleansing and strengthens local immunity, increasing resistance to pathogens.
Application: in the treatment of sinusitis, the agent is prescribed in a dose of 2-4 injections. The drug can be used for a long period, up to several months.
Cost: from 300 rubles.
Composition: Active ingredient of sodium chloride, additional ingredients.
Action: This spray of sinusitis has anti-edematous effect, clears nasal passages, moisturizes the nasal mucosa, promotes better separation of mucus. In the treatment of sinusitis, the drug is used as an auxiliary. It has no contraindications and does not lead to the development of undesirable effects, therefore it is prescribed even during pregnancy or treatment of infants.
Usage: recommended dose for adults - 2 sprayings 6-8 times a day. Children are prescribed one injection up to 6 times a day.
Cost: from 170 rubles.
Composition: active substance mometasone, additional components.
Action: The spray is a glucocorticosteroid agent with an anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effect that relieves swelling and restores normal breathing.
Application: Nasonex is prescribed in a dose of 2 injections from 2 to 4 times a day. Term of treatment must be agreed with the doctor.
Cost: from 450 rubles.
Ingredients: active ingredient fluticasone, excipients.
Action: the drug is a corticosteroid agent that has anti-inflammatory, anti-edematous and anti-allergic effect. Spray reduces nasal congestion, relieves itching, discomfort in the sinuses, feeling of pressure around the eyes and nose, helps to get rid of the headache, often accompanying the acute current sinusitis.
Application: adults and children from 12 years - 2 times a day. After passing through acute symptoms, the dose is reduced by half. Children from 4 to 12 years - 1 injection a day.
Cost: from 750 rubles.
Ingredients: active substances acetylcysteine and tuamine heptane, auxiliary ingredients.
Action: according to the description given in the manual, the drug has a vasoconstrictive, anti-inflammatory and mucolytic effect. Spray promotes liquefaction and better separation of excreta, removal of edema and inflammation of the nasal mucosa.
Application: adults are recommended to 2 injections 3-4 times a day, children - 1 dose the same number of times. The product can not be used for more than 7 days.
Cost: from 240 rubles.
Ingredients: active components extract and lyophilisate of cyclamen juice and solvent (distilled water).
Action: The spray is a herbal preparation that effectively removes inflammation, stimulates the production of mucus and improves the process of its removal. The drug is the most expensive in the rating of drugs, but few other drugs provide the same pronounced effect: enhanced mucus production begins almost immediately after spraying the aerosol and continues depending on the amount of precipitation from half an hour to two.
Application: at a time, the agent is sprayed once. With daily use, the course of treatment lasts 6-8 days, when administered every other day - no more than 12-16.
Cost: from 2000 rubles.
Similar mucolytic effect has a more affordable plant product called "Sinupret but it is not produced in the form of a spray, but in drops and pills.
Composition: active substance fusafungin, additional components.
Action: The spray is an antibiotic with anti-inflammatory activity.
Application: the drug is injected into the mouth and nose. Adults are recommended for 4 injections in the throat and 2 in the nose up to 4 times a day. Children from, years - 2-4 sprays an aerosol in a mouth and on 1-2 in a nose at the same quantity of daily doses.
Cost: from 500 rubles.
Ingredients: active components neomycin, polymyxin B, dexamethasone, phenylephrine, auxiliary ingredients.
Action: this spray from sinusitis has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictive effect.
Application: adults are recommended for 1 injection up to 3-5 times a day, children from, to 15 years - a similar dose up to 3 times a day. The period of treatment with the drug is 5-10 days.
Cost: from 270 rubles.
Composition: active ingredient of scrambutin, auxiliary components.
Action: The spray has an antibacterial effect and is prescribed for a pronounced infection-inflammatory process.
Application: adults - 1 spray of aerosol to 4-6 times a day, children - the same dose, but the daily number of injections should not be more than 3. Treatment lasts a week.
Cost: from 260 rubles.
What kind of sprays can I use for children?
Use a children's spray from the cold in the treatment of children under the age of not recommended because of the high risk of reflex spasm of the larynx, which can cause serious breathing disorders. A spray in the nose for older children is chosen taking into account age among special children's forms of drugs having a reduced concentration of active substances.
With genyantritis in children, some experts recommend the use of homeopathic remedies, which have fewer side effects than traditional drugs. Most experts are skeptical about these drugs, but there are patients who note marked improvements after such therapy.
Feedback on results after treatment
Maria, 28 years old: I am treating sinusitis for many years. Once I was recommended a plant remedy "Sinuforte". The spray helped, but because of the high price for Sinuport, analogues and substitutes for which I was told can not be found in Russia, I switched to Polidex at the following exacerbations. Approximately 3-4 days I am treated precisely under the instruction and respiration is restored.
Sergei, 34 years old: Sinusitis was in a very neglected stage. Tried to heal folk methods - washing with broths, inhalations with honey, alcohol compresses, warming up. Temporary relief was, but in a good clinic in St. Petersburg I still advised to make a puncture because of the high risk of complications. After the puncture, a cheap antibiotic spray was prescribed. More than a year has passed since everything is in order.
Svetlana, 25 years old: When the untreatable genyantritis developed, she feared that it would not come to the operation and was treated with everything that was prescribed. Assigned to me drops, bactericidal sprays and warming procedures, conscientiously underwent several courses of treatment and managed to cope with the disease. For the prevention of relapse, I now try to treat the runny nose as it should.
The most popular means for the treatment of genyantritisThe treatment of sinusitis is very different from the treatment with a common cold or cold. The proximity of the paranasal sinuses to the orbits and vessels of the brain, makes this disease especially dangerous and the choice of an effective medicine for sinusitis becomes a decisive factor for rapid recovery.
In the treatment of sinusitis it is necessary to use several groups of drugs, such as sinupret, sinuporte, sanorin or folk remedy - cyclamen, appoint only qualified personnel, the doctor will observe the progress of treatment and, if necessary, adjust it or to supplement. With independent or incorrect treatment, the inflammation can become chronic or the patient is at risk of getting one of the numerous complications of this disease.
For the treatment of sinusitis you need
- Suppress the development of the infectious process and inflammation in the paranasal sinuses - for this purpose use antibiotics and antiseptics - washing with solutions of furacilin, saline solutions, inhalation with drugs and antibiotics in the form of sprays, drops, tablets or injections,
- Reduce the swelling of the mucosa and increase the outflow of accumulated fluid from the sinuses - for this use means, narrowing vessels (adrenomimetics) and mucolytics that dilute mucus and facilitate its removal - sinupret, sanorin, gaymorin, sinuporte and others, also use folk remedies for the treatment of sinusitis - cyclamen, royal jelly or honey,
- Rid of the patient from pain and intoxication - use analgesics, vasoconstrictor drugs and antibiotics,
- Prevent the formation of scar tissue - in chronic sinusitis increases the risk of scar tissue formation in place inflammation, to avoid this use corticosteroids and resorptives - backlopt, spray - nazoneks and others.
We hope you understand from the above written that the treatment of sinusitis is an integrated approach using several groups of drugs. These medications can be chosen by an ENT doctor, so it is highly recommended that you go to a medical consultation where you will write in detail what medicines to buy, how to drink them and possibly prescribe additional instrumental methods treatment.Treatment of sinusitis depends on the stage and severity of the disease, but most often, with mild and moderate forms diseases, patients are treated out-patiently, at home, without the use of punctures and other surgical techniques.
To date, it can not be said that one effective remedy for sinusitis has been created, it is necessary to apply the preparations in a complex way for recovery:
At home, antibiotic treatment should be done only as directed by the doctor. In uncomplicated genyantritis, antibiotics are prescribed topically, in the form of drops and sprays, this helps protect the body from their systemic effects. Most often used drugs such as:
- pinosol or neonox are nasal drops on the basis of natural herbal remedies, they simultaneously facilitate breathing, enhancing the outflow of mucus, and disinfect mucous, killing bacteria and viruses;
- protargol and collargol - preparations based on silver ions that purify mucous membranes from pathogenic bacteria, but act slowly and do not have additional effects;
- drops and sprays with dioxydinum - strong enough, but a dangerous remedy possessing antimicrobial, decongestant and antiallergic effect, has many contraindications, is not used to treat children and pregnant women and should only be used by appointment of a doctor.
With moderate and severe sinusitis, systemic antibiotics are used:
- penicillins - ampicillin, amox, amoxyl, amoxiclav and others,
- cephalosporins - ceftriaxone, cefazolin, cefotaxime and so on,
- macrolides - macropen, azithromycin, clarithromycin,
- fluoroquinolones - levofloxacin, sparfloxacin - heavy antibiotics, should be used only in extreme cases, with ineffectiveness of drugs from other groups.
Necessary to reduce the production of mucus and improve nasal breathing, they affect the vessels located in the mucous membrane of the nose and, causing them to narrow, reduce the formation of mucus and tissue swelling, freeing the nasal ways for respiration. Vasoconstrictors are the most common remedy for sinusitis. It is with the application of sprays and drops to the nose that the catarrh of any patient usually begins to be treated, but using adrenomimetics, we must not forget that they drastically dry the nasal mucosa and they can only be used for 3 days contract. The most popular drugs for the treatment of sinusitis can be considered:
- preparations based on xylometazoline - galazolin, otrivin, prinos, tizin xylo, and so on;
- phenylephrine - vibrocil, adrianol;
- oxymetazoline - nasol and others.
It is necessary to dilute mucus and facilitate its removal from the nose, the most popular drugs are those based on medicinal plants, such as cyclamen. For example, sinuporte - the most common medicine for sinusitis, is made on the basis of cyclamen - a poisonous plant, It can reduce mucosal edema, dilute mucus and activate the movement of ciliary epithelium, which promotes excretion mucus from the nose. At home, most medicinal plants, such as cyclamen, can not be used, so sprays and tablets based on them - Sinupret, Sinuporte and others remain so popular.
Used in severe forms of sinusitis, when the usual vasoconstrictor and decongestants are ineffective. Most commonly used nasal sprays - Nazonex, Beclfort and others. They have a pronounced anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous effect, but they have a number of side effects, they should be used only for the doctor's prescription and for no more than 3 consecutive days.
The most popular remedies for sinusitis
For the treatment of genyantritis at home, the following medicines are most often used:
- Drops in the nose - Galazolin, Naphthyzin - preparations of the adrenomimetic group, have a pronounced vasoconstrictive effect, they are prescribed for acute inflammation of the nasal mucosa for the treatment of rhinitis, sinusitis or sinusitis in adults and children. Doctors warn that these drugs have only a symptomatic effect, do not destroy bacteria, but are able to bring only temporary relief to the patient. They are not recommended for more than 3 days in a row, as they are addictive.
- Sinuforte is one of the most effective modern drugs for the treatment of sinusitis. It is created on the basis of natural plant components, such as cyclamen, it is not absorbed into the blood and very quickly begins to act - it stimulates reflex secretion in the mucous membrane of the nose and nasal sinuses, due to this, the drainage of the contents of the paranasal sinuses is intensified, they are cleared and released from the mucus. Sinufort is considered one of the best means for treating sinusitis, it is prescribed to adults and children over 12 years of age in the form of sprays or drops for intranatal administration.
- Sinupret - a combined remedy on the basis of herbal preparations, has anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous effect, liquefies and accelerates the secretion of mucus, in addition, Sinupret accelerates the regeneration of the mucosa and restores its protective properties. Sinupret is prescribed for sinusitis in adults and children from 2 years in the form of pills or tablets or drops for ingestion. There are no other medicinal forms of the drug.
- Polydex is a combined preparation, which includes antibacterial drugs neomycin and polymyxin B and anti-inflammatory - dexamethasone. The drug has proved effective in the treatment of most bacterial infections of the nasal passages and external auditory canals. It is used for the treatment of acute and chronic sinusitis in the form of nasal spray in adults and children from 2 years.
Today, a huge number of different drugs and their analogues for the treatment of sinusitis have been created, even it is difficult for a specialist to understand all of this diversity and assign the appropriate treatment. Therefore, do not try to treat this dangerous disease yourself, at home, without going to the doctor, it can lead to complications or chronic inflammation.
What to choose tablets from a genyantritis?
Tablets from sinusitis doctors appoint to eliminate the infection that occurs and develops on the maxillary sinuses of the nose. Which drug to choose, the doctor decides, depending on the form and severity of the course of this ailment. Tablets from sinusitis serve to restore drainage - unimpeded removal of mucous and purulent discharge from the sinuses of the nose. Usually, pills that treat sinusitis or sinusitis symptoms are used in conjunction with other methods of treatment of the patient: by drops, inhalation, washing the nasal cavity with therapeutic solutions.
Kinds of tablets from a genyantritis
Medicinal products that doctors prescribe for sinusitis can be divided into the following subgroups:
- means for fighting against viruses;
- drugs that relieve swelling;
- mucolytic drugs;
The latter type of medication is used especially often, since it can effectively treat foci of infection. The usual treatment course with antibiotics lasts no more than ten days, which is enough to cure the infection. As a rule, this allows the patient to avoid puncture of the sinuses of the nose.
The most popular antibioticsDoctors treating sinusitis often write out the following antibiotics:
The above groups include such drugs as Flemoxin, Amoxicillin, Solutab. To eliminate the infection, Macroben is used. To destroy different types of bacteria that cause the appearance of sinusitis, doctors treat the patient with Augmentin. If the patient does not tolerate drugs from a number of penicillins, then medications such as Azithromycin or Cephalexin are prescribed.
Usually treatment is carried out by analogues of penicillin, which most effectively eliminate the causes of development sinusitis and other ailments arising from infection of the respiratory organs with pathogenic microorganisms. In some people, this group of antibiotics causes allergic reactions, so doctors use macrolides or a group of cephalosporins to treat such patients. Based on the characteristics and type of the disease, the specialist selects the drugs for each case.
It is necessary to know that the effectiveness of antibiotics is very low until the moment when all the pus has been removed from the maxillary sinuses. In order to accelerate the healing process, doctors recommend the patient several types of antibiotics at once to fight the disease at the level of the body as a whole.
What you need to know about antibioticsThey have a number of contraindications. For example, you can not use this group of drugs for people suffering from various diseases of the liver and kidneys or when allergies to certain substances. It is forbidden to take antibiotics for pregnant and lactating women. To eliminate negative phenomena, the patient must read the attached their instructions and consult a doctor who will prescribe the exact dose required in each case. It must be remembered that every group of antibiotics is characterized by its spectrum of contraindications. When using these tools, the following should be considered:
- What kind of antibiotic to use for sinusitis, the doctor decides, depending on the severity of the manifestation of the disease.
- In most cases, the choice of a drug depends on which antibiotic the patient used earlier.
- If there is no effect of taking the drug on the fifth day of the disease, then you need to change the antibiotic to another.
- It must be remembered that inhalations, mucolytics, although they relieve swelling, but do not cure sinusitis completely, and antibiotics eliminate the disease itself.
Antiviral and mucolytic agentsSince in certain cases the effectiveness of antibiotics is low due to viruses, then antiviral therapy should be used. During a viral sinusitis, doctors usually recommend to patients such a remedy as Sinupret.
One of the positive qualities of this drug is its natural origin, since it is made on the basis of plant components. Therefore, he does not have such contraindications as in antibiotics. Restrictions in this case are associated with individual intolerance to the components of the drug. These pills relieve inflammation, which allows pus and mucus to freely exit from the maxillary sinuses. At the same time, swelling decays rapidly.
Mucolytic tablets do not fight the inflammatory process directly. They facilitate the patient's position by acting on the density of mucus accumulated in the sinuses, dilute it and facilitate the withdrawal. They are safe to use for any group of patients. During the treatment of the disease, they are often used in conjunction with recipes of traditional medicine. Of the mucolytics, the most popular are such tablets as Fluimucil, Gwayfenezin, Mukodin. These drugs reduce the density of purulent discharge and mucus, which leads to the flow of fluid from the nasal canals and brings relief to the patient.
Mucolytics, like all medicines, have certain contraindications:
- They should not be given to the patient if the components of the drug are intolerant.
- If a person has problems in the gastrointestinal tract, for example: a stomach ulcer or a duodenal lesion.
- It is forbidden to use mucolytics for bronchial asthma, liver and kidney disease.
- Do not take drugs under the age of 18.
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Women during pregnancy and lactation mucolytics appoint in exceptional cases, in order to avoid a negative impact on the child.
Drugs that relieve swelling, and analgesics
These pills relieve swelling in the nasal sinuses and mucous membranes. They narrow the blood vessels passing in these places, this drastically lowers the stuffiness of the nasal canals. Drugs are not used as an independent tool for fighting the disease, but are used together with antibiotics.The active element in these tablets is alpha-adrenomimetic together with hydrochlorides. These tablets are sold under the names Oxymetazoline, Pseudoephedrine and Phenylephrine. They can not be used if they are too sensitive to the components of the drug or intolerance. Contraindications for them are:
- The patient has diabetes.
- Various dysfunctions of the cardiovascular system.
- Peptic ulcer of the duodenum and stomach.
These tablets are not allowed to be used in therapeutic therapy for children under 12 years old, pregnant women and mothers during lactation.
Analgesics do not fight with the sinusitis itself, but only relieve symptoms, for example: eliminate pain or lower the temperature of the patient's body. The most popular medicines recommended by doctors are the following analgesics: Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Paracetamol. During the treatment of sinusitis, this type of medication should be taken by the patient only according to the doctor's prescription and not more than 10 days.
Analgesics have the following contraindications:
- Presence of a peptic ulcer or stomach ulcer in a patient.
- Allergic reaction to the use of these pills.
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This kind of medicinal products is forbidden to be used in the treatment of sinusitis for children under 12 years. For them, there are specially created medicines, for example, based on Ibuprofen with a dosage for babies, Nurofen.
In any case, with inflammation of the maxillary sinuses, one should not engage in self-medication.
It is better to consult a doctor and apply in a complex way those pills that he will write out. Together with medications recommended by medics, you can also use traditional medicine recipes, having previously received appropriate advice from a doctor, this will speed up the recovery process.
MucolyticsWhen inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system is often one of the symptoms becomes a cough. It can be dry, unproductive, with difficult sputum separation or moist, considered productive. Sputum is a secret secreted by the respiratory system. If it becomes too viscous, then the cough is difficult. Help in this situation can special mukoactive drugs that can be conditionally divided into 3 groups:
- Mukokinetics improving mucus yield, for example, bromhexine, ambroxol and others.
- Mucolytics that dilute mucus, reducing its viscosity. These include acetylcysteine, proteolytic enzymes and others.
- Mucoregulators affecting the amount of mucus secreted. These are M-holinoblokatory, carbocysteine, glucocorticoids.
The action of mucolytics
The action of mucolytic agents is aimed at destroying the molecules of mucopolysaccharides contained in sputum, because of which it becomes liquefied. Such drugs are divided into non-enzyme and enzyme. Thus, proteolytic enzymes are capable of breaking peptide bonds of proteins and destroying polypeptides, or high molecular weight products formed during the breakdown of proteins. These include terrylitin, trypsin, ribonuclease, terridecase and others. Non-enzyme agents affect the disulfide bonds of the molecules of sputum proteins, rupturing them. This group of drugs includes bromhexine, ambroxol, acetylcysteine and others.
The drug acetylcysteine contains in the molecules reactive sulfhydryl groups, which destroy the disulfide bonds of mucopolysaccharides contained in bronchial mucus. This leads to a dilution of phlegm. In addition, the components of this agent reduce the number and activity of pathogenic microorganisms on the respiratory mucosa. Also, acetylcysteine has an antioxidant effect, since it contains free sulfhydryl groups, reacting with free radicals and reactive oxygen metabolites and removing them from organism. Namely, these substances contribute to the development of the inflammatory process of the respiratory tract and lung tissue.
Carbocysteine has mucolytic and mucoregulating effects. This drug reduces the number of neutral and increases the number of acid glycopeptides, normalizing their ratio, resulting in affecting the elasticity and viscosity of phlegm. The drug helps regenerate the mucosa and restore its structure. In addition, when it is taken, the secretion of the specific local defense factor IgA is increased, and secretion is normalized sulfhydryl groups, related to factors of nonspecific defense, the functioning of the ciliary epithelium is activated bronchi.
Ambroxol and bromhexine have a similar effect. When they are taken, lysosomes are released from Clara cells, hydrolysing enzymes are activated, mucopolysaccharides and mucoproteins present in the carrot are destroyed. Thus, the viscosity of mucus decreases, its composition changes, the work of the bronchial glands increases, motor activity of ciliated, or ciliary, epithelium, the peristalsis of the smallest bronchi. In addition, these drugs have anti-inflammatory effect and reduce swelling of surrounding tissues.
The use of enzyme type mucolytics can lead to allergic reactions, damage to the mucosa respiratory tract, hemoptysis, bronchospasm, side effects from other systems and organs rights. Direct contraindications to their use are the following pathologies: decompensated heart failure, cirrhosis and dystrophy liver, hepatitis of an infectious nature, pancreatitis, pulmonary emphysema, characterized by respiratory failure, tuberculosis and hemorrhagic diathesis.
Nonfermental mucolytics can not be used for ulcers of the stomach and intestines, as well as for pulmonary hemorrhages. These drugs can provoke the emergence of dyspeptic phenomena, such as nausea, pain in the area stomach, heartburn, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, and also cause gastrointestinal bleeding and exacerbation of ulcerative disease. These drugs can lead to an allergic reaction, rhinorrhea, dry mouth, or, conversely, increased saliva.
Mesna, acetylcysteine and carboxymethylcysteine can lead to bronchospasm. These drugs, especially acetylcysteine, should be taken with great care in dry cough, as they greatly increase the amount of sputum. Bromhexine and ambroxol should not be used if the patient has a convulsive syndrome. With increased attention, one should treat the dosage of medicinal products if the patient has severe renal failure. When using bromhexine and ambroxol for intravenous injection, there are possible side effects such as dyspnea, chills, increased blood pressure, fever and stupor.
All drugs belonging to the mucolytics group have contraindications for use in pregnant women in the first trimester and lactating women. To prevent the development of bronchospasm in people suffering from bronchial asthma, before taking inhalation with mucolytics, use β2-adrenomimetic in inhalations.
You can not simultaneously use mucolytic and antitussive drugs, as this can cause stasis in the bronchi. With the parallel reception of non-enzyme mucolytics and some groups of antibiotics, the concentration of the latter in the respiratory organs can significantly increase.
Between taking such a mucolytic as acetylcysteine, and antibiotics of the tetracycline group, ampicillin, amphotericin B, should take at least two hours. Otherwise, a reaction between the components of the drugs is possible. When combining acetylcysteine and paracetamol, there is a decrease in the hepatotoxic effect. Carbocysteine and glucocorticoids, when taken together, enhance each other's actions. And with the parallel application of carbocisteine and theophylline, the bronchodilator effect is enhanced.
Mucolytic drugs list
The list of drugs belonging to the mucolytics group is as follows:
- Ambrobene, available in the form of syrups, tablets, capsules and injectable solutions.
- Ambroxol. This drug is also available in various varieties: Vramed, Richter, Verte, Hemofarm, Teva, retard. Forms of release - tablets, capsules, syrup.
- Acetin, in the form of effervescent and conventional tablets.
- AmbrogEXPHONE. It can be in the form of a solution for drinking, tablets, syrup and capsules.
- ATSTS and its version of ATSTS Long. The preparation can have the appearance of effervescent tablets, granules intended for ingestion and preparation of a solution, as well as a solution intended for injection.
- Dephlegmine in drops and tablets.
- Ambrolan. It can be in forms such as a solution for ingestion, capsules, syrup or tablets.
- Lazolvan - syrup, troches, injectable solution, tablets.
- Capsules of AMBROTARD 75.
- Mukodin, available in the form of syrup and capsules.
- Acetylcysteine, its form of injection for injection, substance, solution for internal use. One of the varieties of the drug is Acetylcysteine SEDICO in granules.
- Pulmozyme solution used for inhalation.
- Bromhexine - syrup, tablets and solution for oral administration.
- Medox in tablets and syrup.
- Carbocysteine, it is made in the form of capsules and syrup.
- Solvyn. Form release - solution and tablets.
- Bronchoval, manufactured in the form of tablets and syrup.
- Flavamed - solution and tablets.
- Mukobene in usual and effervescent tablets.
- A solution for internal use with the name of the Bronhawern drop.
- Fluimucil in effervescent tablets and solutions for injection and oral administration.
- Syrup Libexin Muko.
- Chalixol in syrup.
- Sinupret - drops and dragees.
- Mukonist for inhalations.
- Tablets of Suprima-Broncho.
- Fluviert, produced in granules, from which a suspension is prepared, and syrup.
- Rinicold Broncho.
Mucolytics and expectorants
For many pathologies of the respiratory system, such as bronchitis of various forms, bronchial asthma, silicosis of the lungs, bronchoectatic disease and others, the following processes are characteristic. Under the influence of inflammation of an allergic, infectious or immunological nature in the goblet cells of the bronchial mucosa, mucus (sputum) begins to be produced in large quantities. Isolation of this secret is a protective mechanism of the body, designed to remove harmful substances from the respiratory tract and protect the respiratory system. The appearance and nature of the sputum can vary greatly depending on the agents that caused this reaction. Thus, for bacterial contamination, mucus can acquire a yellow or green color and an increased viscosity, with viral - a more liquid consistency and whitish or transparent shades, with allergies the secret is usually viscous and transparent. Sputum discharge in the morning can also be observed in people who smoke for a long time, this indicates the development of the so-called "smokers' bronchitis". Departure of mucus is one of the symptoms of a disease accompanied by bronchial involvement, so such cases require a compulsory visit to the doctor.
For the treatment of such pathologies, quite often various agents are used to promote liquefaction and sputum discharge. It is divided into several groups.
Preparations related to mucolytics, do not affect the volume of excreted mucus, but dilute it and promote its retreat. They improve the sputum composition and, acting on goblet cells located in the bronchial mucosa, normalize the secretion of mucus. In this group, two subspecies can be distinguished: mucolytics with direct and indirect action.
Mucolytics with direct action affect complex chemical compounds of sputum, destroying them. These drugs include:
- Enzymes. Destroy the bonds of mucus glycopeptides. Among other things, have an anti-inflammatory effect. Means of this type are streptokinase, trypsin, streptodornase, alpha-chymotrypsin.
- Thiols. In their composition there is a thiol group acting on polysaccharides of secretion. Such drugs improve the excretion of bronchial sputum, and some of them are also antioxidants. Thiols include mesna, mystaborne, acetylcysteine, fluimucil, mucosolvin, cysteine, mucomist.
- Means with another active substance. They are used very rarely. This is potassium iodide, Mucaltin, ascorbic acid, hypertonic solution.
Mucolytics of indirect action
They are divided into several groups depending on the action:
- Means that influence the adhesiveness of the gel layer. Preparations: bromhexine and its analogs, ambroxol and its derivatives, sodium ethanesulfate, sodium bicarbonate.
- Terpenes and pineny. They are often used for home treatment and are often found in various dietary supplements. This pine and fir essential oils, menthol, camphor, tepineol.
- Medicines that reduce the composition and volume of mucus produced. These include sorberol, carboxymethylcysteine, summestein.
- Drugs that affect the musculature of the bronchi, they also cause vomiting. To date, these funds are used very rarely. To this group belong thermopsis, sodium citrate, ipecacuana, ammonium chloride.
- Means that reduce the amount of sputum production. These include:
- xanthines. This is theophylline.
- β2-adrenomimetics. They activate the mucociliary clearance. These are salmeterol, salbutamol, formoterol, terbutaline, fenoterol and their analogues.
- antagonists of leukotriene receptors - montelukast, zafirlukast, pranlukast.
- Glucocorticosteroid preparations. These include methypred, prednisalone, baclomethasone dipropionate, azmocort, budesonide, propionate, flunisolide, triamcenol acetonide and others, as well as their derivatives and analogues.
The drugs of this group contribute to the acceleration of excretion of sputum from the bronchi. Preparations related to mukokinetics are usually also mucolytics. This is bromhexine, sodium ethanesulfate, ambroxol and sodium bicarbonate.
Since the increased secretion of mucus and its difficult passage are not pathological in themselves, but only symptoms of any disease, then take mucolytic drugs alone worth it. From the correct diagnosis, the timely beginning, completeness and correctness of treatment often depends on the health and life of the patient. Therefore, it is advisable to visit a doctor before taking such medications. However, if this is not possible, some of the tools that combine quality mukokinetics and mucolytics, can be taken with colds accompanied by a cough, even without doctor's recommendations.
Mucolytics with genyantema
As mentioned above, mucolytics exert an effect on the properties and amount of mucus evolved, making it more fluid and helping its escape. Such drugs can be used in the treatment of sinusitis along with antibiotics and other drugs.
For the treatment of sinusitis, Flujucil, Mucodina and Guafenizina are considered the most effective. Their reception contributes to the liquefaction of mucus accumulating in the maxillary sinuses and its excretion. Among other things, these drugs reduce the severity of the inflammatory process. With the correct application and compliance with the dosage, most of these remedies are safe.
So, Guafenizine is often used for inflammation of the maxillary sinuses, although according to official data such a drug effect is not confirmed.
It is worth remembering that for children under the age of two, pediatricians prohibit the taking of any mucolytics, since the possible side effects and the negative effects of taking are clearly superior to the benefits.
Contraindications to the use of mucolytics for the treatment of sinusitis are the following factors:
- children's age up to 12-18 years;
- the period of breastfeeding and the first trimester of pregnancy;
- an ulcer of the stomach or intestines;
- individual reaction to the components of the drug;
- hepatic or renal insufficiency;
- bronchial asthma.
In the second and third trimester of pregnancy, mucolytics can be taken to treat colds diseases and their consequences, in particular sinusitis, but only after a preliminary consultation with doctor.
Mucolytics for inhalations with bronchitis
With chronic bronchitis as a treatment often use inhalation with mucolytics. To do this, use various means: ambroxol, sodium chloride, acetylcysteine, potassium iodide and others.
It is possible to use special ultrasonic inhalers, spraying large volumes of medicines. For such procedures suspensions of ambroxol, glucocorticosteroids, acetylcysteine and other mucolytics and only compression inhalers, since with inhalation the structure and properties preparations.
For one procedure, 20 ml of a solution of sodium hydrogencarbonate, potassium iodide, sodium chloride is sufficient. For several inhalations carried out with a single ultrasonic inhaler, up to 100 ml of a medicinal solution can be filled into its chamber. The duration of inhalation for each patient is about 10-15 minutes, the time depends on the parameters of the device. The course of treatment is usually 1 weeks, every day, 1-2 procedures are carried out.