Under the opacity of the cornea in ophthalmology is understood a whole group of specific features that have a similar etiology and features of manifestation.This is a common disease that develops due to a variety of causes: eye trauma, infection, as a complication after surgery. After appearance of typical signs, many postpone visiting a doctor, writing off everything for fatigue, but timely treatment is the only way to avoid unpleasant and sometimes irreversible complications.
The opacity of the cornea is considered one of the first ophthalmic ailments, described in detail in medicine.The first mention of this defect can be found in the writings of medieval doctors. Outwardly, the disease is a pathological cicatricial change in the retina, which is directly responsible for visual acuity. There are many reasons for this problem, but
Among all eye diseases, corneal opacity takes one of the leading positions. According to the latest data, there are more than 290 million people suffering from this pathology in the world.
The manifestations of corneal opacity differ depending on the degree of severity and localization of the defect. There are three main varieties of this disease:
Until recently, throats were often confused with cataracts, since both diseases have a similar symptomatology. Modern diagnostic methods make it easy to differentiate these diseases.
In most cases, the disease occurs in old age due to senile changes in the structure of the eye, and also due to concomitant diseases (diabetes, rheumatism, retinal detachment). However, there are a number of factors that can cause corneal opacity in young people.
Some experts agree that the regular wearing of corrective contact lenses can also lead to various pathologies on the part of the cornea, including clouding.
First, there are typical signs for a variety of ophthalmic ailments: redness, profuse lacrimation, and unpleasant sensations when exposed to light.After the active development of pathology, opacity of the cornea can be detected with the unaided eye. A white or gray hue appears on the cornea, it becomes cloudy. Directly turbidity has a characteristic shiny and dense structure, unlike cataracts. When forming a thorn, especially large size, you can see a small scar on the surface.
Reduction of visual acuity does not always happen. It depends on some factors: age, area of the affected surface and localization of the disease.In the formation of turbidity in the central and peripheral part of the cornea, not only distortion or loss of vision is observed, but astigmatism develops.
If the pathology is accompanied by increased intraocular pressure, stretching or thinning of the corneal opacity, which is commonly called an exalted canker, may occur.
If the disease progression is not stopped in time, the opacity of the cornea may subsequently lead to irreversible complications.Typically, this is a strong reduction in visual acuity, as well as the formation of secondary glaucoma. With a long course of the disease, there is a possibility of developing complete blindness. The opacity of the cornea, caused by a bacterial infection, can lead to concomitant infectious diseases of the eyes, for example, conjunctivitis.
In rare cases, neglected turbidity leads to irreversible corneal dystrophy, which practically does not respond to treatment, especially in the elderly. And with the formation of a thorn in the very center of the cornea, there is a possibility of the development of leukoma, in which case early and immediate treatment is required.
For an accurate diagnosis, complex diagnosis is required, which always begins with a visual inspection of the structural components of the visual apparatus.Almost in all cases, biomicroscopy is used - external examination of the eye with a slit lamp. It allows not only to clearly see the source of turbidity, but also to evaluate its structure.
Corneal opacity and other degenerative processes can be detected using the Amsler lattice.And ultrasound of the organs of vision and optical coherence tomography can also be used to clarify the diagnosis.
The choice of strategy for the treatment of corneal opacity always depends on the extent of the lesion, the age of the patient and the etiology of the disease. As a therapy of mild clouding without traces of scarring, medication is usually used.
The greatest difficulty is the treatment of corneal opacity, which is accompanied by concomitant eye diseases - glaucoma or cataracts. In this case, a comprehensive treatment aimed at eliminating the primary disease is selected.
With the development of coarse opacity of the cornea, which has scars on the surface, and significantly reduces visual acuity, raise the issue of surgical treatment of the disease.Recently, the most common surgery for a through transplantation of the cornea. ABOUTon is to remove the damaged areas of the eye and further transplant donor tissue together with the endothelium, or only the inner layer. Despite the fact that today it is the most effective surgical method, it has a number of limitations. For example, transplantation is not possible if the patient has chronic heart disease, as well as some forms of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the procedure is not recommended in the elderly.
There are no reliable ways to prevent the development of corneal opacity.It is believed that simple preventive measures: the rejection of bad habits, the use of sunglasses in sunny days, adherence to a balanced diet and daily routine, as well as the use of individual of protectionin harmful production helps to reduce the risk of disease.
Of great importance is the timely treatment of eye diseases, since the opacity of the cornea has the property to develop against a background of some serious ophthalmic diseases.
Corneal opacity is a serious disease in the visual apparatus, which tends to progress and relapse.If the first symptoms are found, it is necessary to turn to a specialist in time, since the treatment of the disease in the early stages is much more effective. At risk are the elderly, because with age, irreversible degenerative processes in the visual apparatus, which is why after 60 years it is important to regularly undergo medical examinations in order to take necessary measures.
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