Together with the winter comes and ice. And with it sometimes - falling and trauma. And I did not seem to hit hard, but the bruised place soon begins to ache. How to distinguish between bruising and stretching from a fracture and a dislocation? And how to properly help?
Veronika K., Petrozavodsk
The word to the surgeon
Boris Kolodkin, Moscow
- Dear Veronica, no matter what the injury, the main thing is to immobilize the damaged part of the body in time. And further, depending on the severity of the damage, the surgeon will determine the method of treatment with the help of an X-ray: massage, gypsum or surgery (if, for example, a muscle or ligament is torn).
Stretchings and bruises are less painful than fractures, with the muscles, tendons, etc. partially broken.
Within a few days, their working capacity is restored.
But bruises can be accompanied by more severe injuries: dislocations, fractures, internal injuries.
Pain, swelling, or swelling, painful when palpating, increases for several hours or days; hematoma, bruise; violation of the function of motion. At the time of injury, pain can be intense, but after a few hours it decreases.
With a bruise of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, the bruise becomes visible almost immediately. With a deeper bruise, the hematoma appears outside in the form of a bruise after only 2-3 days.
With an increase in the hematoma and edema of the injured limb, it becomes difficult for a person to move the injured part of the body, to walk.
Tension of ligaments and muscles
Sensations similar to the state after a bruise, but only pain - in the area of the joints. There is swelling and bruising, but the violation of the movement of the joint is more pronounced than with a bruise
Stretching or tearing of ligaments and muscles occurs with movements in the joint exceeding its physiological capabilities. In this case, the joint can still make some movements, but the muscles block it.
There is a threat of rupture and muscle, and tendons. Dangerous movements in the unusual direction of the joint are also dangerous. The most traumatic ligaments of the joints, especially the ankle (with the turn of the foot).
1 Apply a pressure bandage and a cold object to the injury site.
2 To accelerate recovery, use a variety of topical medications, possessing anti-inflammatory and analgesic action: diclofenac-gel, indovazin, fastum-gel. All medications should be applied to the injury site 2-3 times a day for 10 days.
Self-medication is possible only if you are sure that the victim has no fracture or dislocation.
Attention: it is possible to apply ointments only to undamaged skin (open wound can not be smeared). These drugs are contraindicated for intolerance to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
the rupture of the ligaments of the knee joint is often accompanied by a hemorrhage into the joint cavity - the area of the joint increases in size, becomes hot to the touch
the same + completely lost muscle function
when the shoulder bicep rupture, the injured person can not bend his hand, if one of the hip muscles breaks, he will unbend his leg in the knee
the same + the inability to bend and unbend a limb, the ability to move with the help of another person
The rupture can arise as an independent damage, and may be adjacent to a dislocation or fracture. For example, the cause of muscle rupture can be their rapid and strong contraction, a strong blow to the contracted muscle.
The same + violation of limb function:
fracture of the finger - pronounced edema, tenderness when moving
fracture of the leg - loss of ability to support, pain when trying to make a full step
a dislocation of the shoulder or a fracture of the clavicle - the hand "hangs with a whip" and there are minor movements in the elbow joint, an attempt to move the arm in the shoulder joint causes a sharp pain
Attention: at the slightest suspicion of a fracture, dislocation or rupture, you urgently need to seek medical help: an ambulance, an emergency room, a hospital. Independent actions are possible only in extreme cases and must be performed cautiously.
Fracture - abnormal curvature or shortening of the limb, soreness in the place of a possible fracture, which is strengthened when trying to move the injured limb and when pressing.
1 If bone has broken the skin (open fracture), remove the adherent foreign bodies, treat the skin around the protruding bone with an antiseptic: hydrogen peroxide (3%).
It foams well, so it cleans the dirt from the wound and stops the bleeding well. You can also use a solution of alcohol or furatsilin.
Then, always apply a sterile bandage, not setting the bone.
2 With an open fracture, stop arterial bleeding (a tourniquet is placed above the open fracture).
3 Prevent traumatic shock: as much as possible anesthetize the improvised means, put something cold on the wound area.
4 Apply a sterile bandage on the wound and immobilize the injured limb with improvised means: boards, sticks, branches. If the arm is broken, you can tie the bottom of the shirt to the collar.
The main goal - to ensure the immobility of bones in the place of fracture or dislocation. At the same time, pain and pre-
Duplicate traumatic shock.
Immobility in the fracture site is provided by the imposition of special tires or improvised means - strong, but sufficiently light objects that support and fix the damaged limb in the position of the minimal soreness.
When holding the limb in the retracted position, rollers should be used. In extreme cases, a broken arm can be bandaged to the trunk, and the leg to the other leg.
Fractures and dislocations are not always easy to distinguish, so first aid should be given, as with fractures.
A source: https://sobesednik.ru/zdorove/prostoi-ushib-ili-strashnyi-perelom-kak-opredelit
Differentiation of ankle fracture and dilatation is extremely important, since the amount of necessary treatment depends on this.
Injuries to the musculoskeletal system are an extremely common phenomenon.
Given the nature of the damage, the necessary treatment may differ.
It is necessary to know how to distinguish an ankle fracture from a stretch, as when stretching it can be delayed with the treatment in a hospital, and with a fracture it is better not to postpone treatment to a medical institution.
Damage to the ankle is one of the most serious injuries. The joint itself has a complex structure.
It is formed by articular surfaces of three bones (talus, large and small tibia), tendons and ligaments.
This joint is one of the strongest in the body, since it has the main load during walking and running.
Stretching or fracture of the ankle may be associated with the lesion of various anatomical formations, but the clinical picture will not differ significantly
In most cases, sprains or a fracture of the foot cause a temporary loss of capacity for a long period, and a full restoration of the function may require more than six months of time.
Fracture is a pathology in which the integrity of the bone is observed. It is accepted to distinguish two types of fracture - open and closed. Closed fractures flow more easily, they rarely observe a strong displacement of bone fragments, and recovery and rehabilitation are faster.
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An open fracture is characterized by the fact that simultaneously with bone damage there is a disruption of the integrity of soft tissues. In this case, bone fragments can stick outward.
A fairly frequent phenomenon with an open fracture is a bleeding. It develops due to the fact that the arteries pass in close proximity to the bone.
In fracture, bone fragments can damage arteries, or they break under the influence of mechanical forces.
With an ankle fracture, the damage to the fibula is most often caused. This bone is the thinnest of all the components of the ankle, respectively, it requires a smaller force of external influence, that it would break.
Quite often ankle fractures are accompanied by ruptures of the ligamentous apparatus, which requires reconstructive surgical interventions.
The purpose of such operations is to restore the integrity of the tendons. If such treatment is not carried out, the joint will not function fully.
Stretching of the ankle ligaments carries less danger, but also causes a disruption in the functioning of the joint.
Depending on the degree of severity of damage, the clinical picture of the stretch may differ significantly.
For mild injuries, the symptoms will be weak or almost absent.
It is worth noting that the stretching of the ligament apparatus of the ankle is much more common than the fracture. This is due to the fact that the ligamentous apparatus is more susceptible to mechanical damage than the bones.
Violation of the integrity of ligaments during ruptures requires surgical intervention to restore their integrity
Fracture and stretching can occur under various circumstances.
So, the most common situations are:
For these injuries is characterized by a vivid clinical picture, which consists of such manifestations:
On the basis of the clinical picture, fracture and stretching can be differentiated, but 100% information can be obtained only after radiography.
Based on some symptoms, it is possible to differentiate these pathologies.
There are several criteria for distinguishing ankle sprain from fracture:
|Pain||There may be acute severe pain or slight soreness in motion or palpation.||Always a strong pain, which is greatly increased when trying to move.||Pain relief should be immediate to prevent the development of traumatic shock|
|Deformity of the limb||It is absent before the development of edema.||Visible even before swelling.||Deformity of the limb is an absolute sign of a fracture|
|Edema||Depends on the severity of the injury.||There is always a strong edema.||Edema can be pronounced|
|Mobility||Partially preserved or not disturbed for minor damage.||Absent.||The preservation of joint mobility is an important criterion for assessing and diagnosing|
The most informative way, how to determine the stretching or fracture of the foot, is an x-ray.
If a person has sprained ligaments or suspected a fracture, then an ambulance should be called.
It is not recommended to get to the hospital on your own, as there is a risk of displacement of bone fragments.
Movement of a damaged limb can lead to the need for surgery to compare debris.
Without waiting for the arrival of an ambulance, you can take several measures to ease the condition:
The use of an ice bladder helps to significantly reduce the intensity of swelling
If the patient has a disorder of consciousness, then it must be irritating. To do this, you can sprinkle your face with cold water, pinch your face. You can also give a sniff of ammonia.
Depending on the severity of the fracture and stretching, treatment can be performed on an outpatient basis, or in a hospital.
Inpatient treatment is indicated for those patients who need reconstructive surgery.
Such surgical interventions can be carried out for the purpose of comparing bone fragments or stitching of damaged ligaments.
After such operations, the rehabilitation period may last for more than six months.
To patients the doctor prescribes such treatment methods:
Proper immobilization with a plaster bandage is the key to successful bone consolidation
It is necessary to follow all the recommendations of the doctor, since the consequences of injuries can lead to persistent impairments of the function, which will be detrimental to walking.
Stretching or fracture of the ankle is a common injury. One of the reasons for this pattern is that this joint has a heavy load.
In addition, the ankle has several rotational planes, which significantly increases the risk of injury.
A source: https://travm.info/diagnostika/differencialnaya-diagnostika/kak-otlichit-perelom-golenostopa-ot-rastyazheniya-227
The fundamentals of providing pre-hospital care for various types of injuries are part of the compulsory knowledge that everyone is required to own.
Before taking any action, you must first make sure that you have correctly determined the type of injury and did not confuse it with another type of injury.For example, do you know how to distinguish fractures from dislocations?
Dislocation is characterized by a pathological change in the normal shape and natural position of the joint.
At the same time, any movement is blocked on the site of the dislocation, the pain is clearly felt, and there is swelling.
Dislocated bones protrude, due to which on the surface of the skin can be distinguished two small tubercles, located next to each other.
In fracture, the whole structure of the bone is broken, but the site of the injury, in contrast to the dislocation, retains mobility. When an open fracture bone fragment protrudes through the damaged skin, therefore in this case there is no doubt.
On the broken site instantly formed swelling, a little later - a hematoma. Gradually, the tumor covers the entire damaged limb. Particular danger is an open fracture, because the probability of infection is high.
As already mentioned above, with fractures, the integrity of the bone is broken, and with dislocations a sharp stretching of the ligamentous apparatus occurs joints, rupture of the joint capsule, as a result of which the ratio of the surfaces of the joints is disrupted and the movements of the injured the joint. How to distinguish a dislocation from a more serious injury by external signs?
This phenomenon is explained by the fact that in violation of the integrity of the bone, the body experiences a tremendous shock, therefore mobilizes forces to repel the next attack on the health of the body and organs. As soon as the shock condition passes, the pain immediately begins to be felt.
The main task in case of a dislocation or fracture is to get to the medical facility as soon as possible and get qualified help. It is important to try to keep the injured limb at rest, that is, try to immobilize it.
The use of strong analgesics is strictly contraindicated, since it can erase their clinical picture important signs and as a result interfere with the examination of the doctor, namely the correct assessment of the condition of the damaged site.
If there was a dislocation:
If there was a fracture:
The above mentioned signs refer to injuries of the extremities. The reaction of other parts of the body to fractures and dislocations is somewhat different.
For example, a skull fracture is sometimes accompanied by a slight migraine, but at the same time a complication in the form of a serious hemorrhage is possible.
Therefore, when getting injured, it is better to consult a doctor, even though there are no expressed complaints about your health.
Only a specialist can make a final diagnosis. The provision of first aid is reduced only to the relief of the condition of the victim prior to the arrival of the ambulance crew.
Sometimes, to determine a dislocation or fracture, a superficial examination and a couple of questions are enough.
However, most often you have to resort to an x-ray, and sometimes an MRI, CT and other methods.
A source: http://bezperelomov.com/obshee/kak-otlichit-perelom-ot-vyvixa.html
The displacement of the joint due to ligament rupture, in medicine is called an ankle dislocation.
Sometimes, the joint and ligaments are shifted and broken not completely, doctors call this state - a subluxation.
In certain cases, the joint is displaced without tearing ligament, this condition is considered a lesion without injury to the muscle tissue.
Dislocation of the ankle - a very frequent phenomenon. In the ICD-10, this problem is indicated by the number S93.0.
The elderly are at greater risk of injury, since their bones are no longer as strong as they were in their youth.
Athletes are also very familiar with joint injuries, because their occupation is associated with active physical activity. Women are prone to ankle injury not less, it's all about the shoes.
Weak sex prefers high heels, at times increasing the risk of tucking a leg. None of the people is immune from injury, occupation, sex and age, not related to the accident.
Looking at that, a strong dislocation or not, it is divided into 3 degrees of severity, each of them has its own symptoms:
An examination of the patient in the hospital gives a sufficient amount of data on the extent of the injury, for the correct diagnosis, but not in all cases.
How to distinguish a fracture from a dislocation? People with suspected ankle damage are assigned an ankle in the ankle joint in different projections.
This procedure will show with certainty the nature of the injury, with an ankle fracture or it is an ankle injury, and will also determine the specific type of injury received, for example, stretching or dislocation, or this dislocated displacement.
To understand whether there is a fracture in the victim or not, you need to know how to determine this. To do this, remember that the dislocation never changes the length and shape of the limb. Fracture or dislocation? To begin with, we will understand the symptoms of a fracture:
Consider the types of ankle injury:
What to do with a dislocation? Immediately begin to provide first aid, even before going to the hospital. From the time for which the patient will be assisted, depends on his recovery time after treatment, and the extent of the subsequent motor function of the joint.
First aid in case of dislocation:
Contraindications for trauma:
Is treatment at home possible? First, the treatment of the house is to provide first aid, so the leg should be immobilized, put ice on, and call an ambulance, or take the patient away.
An anti-inflammatory drug is prescribed, such as: Movalis, Ibuprofen. It is mandatory to use crutches when walking, so as not to put a strain on the injured leg.
When an easy injury is received, the traumatologist may allow the house to be treated. Symptoms, in this case, will be removed by applying ice for 10 minutes, or taking medications such as Ibuprofen. The patient is also provided with absolute peace and rest.
To treat the first stages of dislocation, one should adhere to a special scheme:
The duration of such treatment is at least 2 weeks. After this period of time, you can already give a weak load on the foot and remove the bandage. But, it is allowed to do only after the pain completely disappears.
The second and third stages of the dislocation are characterized by a more serious displacement of the joint and require its correction in the shortest possible time, it is strictly forbidden to do this on their own. In the hospital, the affected area is anesthetized with special injections of anesthetics - novocaine, the patient is done every 2 days.
The second degree is treated by applying gypsum, after that it must be worn for at least 14 days. Physiotherapy, massage procedures and exercise therapy are prescribed. Complete recovery of the patient occurs in 3-4 weeks.
Treatment of the third degree is done in this way:
With proper treatment, the victim will be able to return to a normal lifestyle within a month.
For treatment, you need to know a few simple but effective ways. Folk remedies:
Complications can result in serious consequences. The most dangerous is the instability of the joint. Eliminate the problem only by surgical intervention. At this time, patients complain of severe weakness and instability in the joint.
Another frequent complication is a relapse of the stretch. Often, the victims complain of severe pain, severe swelling of the joint and very frequent turning of the legs during movement, which provokes a surge of pain.
Usually the prognosis after the dislocation of the foot is quite favorable, the risk of the above complications is minimal with proper treatment.
It happens that the dislocation provokes the appearance of such diseases as: gout, rheumatoid arthritis, but this happens only with those patients who already had a predisposition to these diseases.
Depending on the severity of the injury, the recovery period takes from a couple weeks to several months, sometimes people need to wear special shoes and bandages, some will have to walk for some time with cane.
A source: http://www.lechim-prosto.ru/vyvih-golenostopa.html
Getting any injury, even an ordinary injury, is always accompanied by a sharp pain with the further appearance of bruising and swelling of the injured tissues.
But under the external manifestation of a bruise, more serious trauma can often hide, for example, a front or a dislocation with stretching, as well as a rupture of ligaments requiring urgent medical attention.
In the article you will learn how to distinguish a dislocation from a fracture and determine the trauma.
It is important to remember that getting a dislocation is always accompanied by a very strong and sharp pain, the intensity of which often depends on the complexity of the trauma and its characteristics.Most common among the general symptoms of dislocation are:
Symptomatic fractures, as a rule, largely depends on the location and characteristics of the injury.Common features include:
The pain in the fracture can have a different character and, as a rule, does not appear sharply, as in the case of a dislocation, but appears a little later and quickly grows, becoming unbearable even with passive movement.
In this case, you can identify a specific area when examining, where soreness is manifested most strongly, by accurately tapping the bone of the limb along its axis or probing the damaged area.In some cases, with a fracture, the pain may not be sharp and pronounced very weakly. Most often, this phenomenon is observed in vertebral body fractures.
An important point is that when a fracture is received, a person can not move a traumatized limb, somehow lean against it. But here everything also depends on the place and nature of the injury.
For example, with a fracture of the fibula, metatarsal or lumbar, as well as any others that go in parallel with others (one of parallel), the violation of functionality may be absent, and the deformation of the place of injury appears only in the case when there is displacement of fragments.
Of course, only an expert can make an accurate diagnosis by conducting the necessary examinations, examinations and X-rays, but in some cases it is important to determine type of injury yourself and, if possible, provide the necessary assistance, for example, in an emergency situation, when there is no time to quickly deliver a person to the clinic capabilities.
Presumably determine the type of injury received, andTo distinguish a dislocation from a fracture it is possible on some grounds, in particular:
|Painful sensations||Sharply manifested immediately at the time of injury, with the pain greatly enhanced when trying any movement in the injured joint.||At the time of injury, pain due to the state of shock can be practically absent, but later manifests itself sharply, very intensely, and becomes unbearable when trying to move.|
|Puffiness||It appears quickly in most cases.||It manifests itself in most cases and can be strongly pronounced.|
|Changing the length of the injured limb||Occurs in some cases||Very often observed|
|Pathological mobility outside the joint||Not visible||It is observed very often, especially in the presence of displacement fragments.|
|Bone fragility crepitation||Absent||It is observed in most cases|
|Deformation of the injured part of the body||Present in most cases||Very often observed|
|An increase in pain syndrome upon palpation of the injured site||Occurs always||Occurs always to an intolerable state|
|Symptom of axial load||Absent||Is positive. In this case, the patient notes the increased pain when performing this test.|
|Deformation of the joint||It is observed in most cases||It is observed with fractures inside the joints, accompanied by rupture of the capsule.|
|Blood in the joint||It is observed in most cases, especially with a serious injury, accompanied by rupture of ligaments.||Observed when there is an internal fracture.|
|Changing the limb axis||Occurs fairly often||Observed in case of significant displacement of bone fragments|
|Active independent movements of the injured limb||Impossible||In most cases, impossible, or limited and cause severe pain|
|Passive movements||Strongly limited due to the fact that with any movement the pain is greatly increased||Strongly limited and painful|
Now you know what are the differences of the dislocation from the fracture.
Even if you understand how to know a fracture or a dislocation, to diagnose it, you need to see a doctor.
A trauma doctor or surgeon can diagnose and recognize the trauma.
Refer to a specialist should receive any injury, accompanied by pain or severe discomfort.
When carrying out the diagnostics, the doctor will first interview the patient or the person who accompanies, in order to explain the circumstances of the injury, after which he will fully inspect the victim.
In some cases, such diagnostic measures are sufficient to make a diagnosis, but for its confirmation the doctor will necessarily direct the person on carrying out of the roentgenogram and revealing of features of the received damage.
In some cases, computer tomography or MRI may be required.
Now you know how the dislocation differs from the fracture. About the provision of first aid for dislocations can be found here.
A source: https://1travmpunkt.com/vyvihi/otlichie-ot-pereloma.html
You can get injured at every turn. In the risk zone, adults and children alike.
And it does not matter whether you are engaged in a traumatic sport or just go to the kitchen to drink water - one awkward movement can lead to bruising, stretching or fracture. Therefore, you need to know how to deal with the victim in different situations.
The algorithm for providing first aid directly depends on the type of injury. But an inexperienced person does not always manage to correctly recognize the type of damage.
How can you distinguish a fracture from a bruise? This is one of the most difficult questions for those who are learning to provide first aid. Let's try to find the answer.
Contusion - internal damage to tissues or organs, which is not accompanied by a violation of the integrity of the skin. This kind of injury can be the result of fracture, dislocation or stretching.
A bruise appears as a consequence of a fall or a severe blow. Soft tissues and organs located on the injured area suffer.
At the site of the impact, a hematoma forms - a cluster of liquid or coagulated blood.
If the bruised arm or leg was strong, the tissues around the bruise flow off, disrupting the mobility of the limb.
Fracture - complete or partial violation of the integrity of the bone or cartilage. It is accompanied by traumatization of surrounding tissues: muscles, skin, vessels, nerve endings. Fractures can appear for two reasons:
Fracture can be open or closed. With a trauma of the first type, the skin is injured, there is a heavy bleeding. The damaged bone is visible on the surface. With a second type of injury, the skin remains intact, there is no external bleeding. There may be a hematoma.
Symptoms of a bruise and closed fracture are very similar. At first glance, both injuries do not have any distinctive features, except for the bruise. Therefore, people have the question: "How to distinguish a fracture from a bruise?"
To understand how to distinguish a fracture from a bruise is not as difficult as it may seem. Main features:
To understand what type of injury a person has, it is necessary to press on the damaged place in the longitudinal direction. If the hand or leg is injured, ask the patient to gently move the support to it. If the fracture appears sharp pain in the damaged area.
If you can not determine for yourself what type of injury the victim has, do not try to provide first aid. It is better to wait until the doctor arrives.
Understand the external signs, what type of injury the victim is not so simple. And with a closed fracture, and with an injury, the same symptoms appear:
To distinguish fracture of a little finger from a bruise it is possible on following signs:
In case of injury, pain in the finger will occur during motor activity. In a couple of days it will pass. If the patient has a fracture, the pain will only increase with time. Stronger will become puffiness.
How to distinguish a fracture from a bruise yourself? Practical experience is important here. There is always a chance that a person without medical education will make a mistake. Therefore, you should not treat yourself.
It is not superfluous to visit the hospital and undergo an X-ray examination to get an accurate diagnosis.
To distinguish fracture of a little finger of a leg or foot from a bruise it is possible on the same signs, as type of damage of a phalanx of a hand.
There is a constant pain that becomes unbearable in a few days. The swelling gradually increases. The finger becomes shorter. When you feel, you can find a protuberance of the bone.
If the fracture is displaced, a strong deformation of the finger will be noticeable.
If the toe is bruised, it will be difficult for the victim to transfer the support to the injured limb. As with the bruise of the phalanx on the arm, there will be acute pain in the motor activity, which will quickly pass if the treatment is performed correctly.
We figured out how to distinguish a fracture from a bruised toe or hand injury. Now find out how to properly provide first aid.
You can provide first aid by following the algorithm below:
Treat bruises with the help of special anti-inflammatory ointments. They remove puffiness, promote resorption of the hematoma and relieve pain. Restorative period after injury lasts 7-14 days.
If the hematoma that forms after the stroke does not pass a long time, it is recommended to consult a doctor. In rare cases, surgical intervention is required to cope with the disease.
First aid for fracture is of great importance for further treatment. It is important not to aggravate the situation. First of all, when the fractured finger is closed, it must be immobilized.
To do this, from the available materials make a tire. A pen, a stick of ice cream, a twig will do.
The tire is applied from the inside of the finger and fixed with a sterile bandage or any other tissue.
If the fracture is open, it is necessary to treat the wound with an antiseptic agent: "Chlorhexidine hydrogen peroxide, "Miramistin".
When bleeding, a gauze bandage or a cotton swab is applied to the damaged area. Then fix the injured finger.
To remove the pain symptom use "Analgin "Ketanov "Nurofen".
In case of a fracture, it is necessary to consult a doctor. It is impossible to cope independently with such a trauma.
You learned how to distinguish a fracture from a bruise. Acquainted with the technique of providing first aid in injuring a finger on the arm or leg.
Following the instructions, you can easily help the victim. But if you are not sure of your abilities, you should not touch the injured limb.
Incorrectly provided first aid will only exacerbate the condition of the patient.
A source: http://.ru/article/259399/kak-otlichit-perelom-ot-ushiba-opisanie-simptomov
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